Monday, September 30, 2019

Ensuring children and young people’s safety Essay

Ensuring children and young people’s safety and welfare in the work setting is an essential part of safeguarding. While children are at school, practitioners act in ‘loco parentis’ while their parents are away. As part of their legal and professional obligations, practitioners hold positions of trust and a duty of care to the children in their school, and therefore should always act in their best interests and ensure their safety – the welfare of the child is paramount (Children Act 1989). The Children Act 2004 came in with the Every Child Matters (ECM) guidelines and greatly impacted the way schools look at the care and welfare of pupils. Children and young people should be helped to learn and thrive and be given the opportunity to achieve the five basic outcomes: be healthy; stay safe; enjoy and achieve; make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. Children are vulnerable and depending on their age and level of development, do not see danger or recognise risks. They do not know when or how to look after themselves and need adults to protect them and ensure their safety, whilst encouraging their independence in an age appropriate manner. All organisations that employ staff or volunteers to work with children need to use a safer recruitment practice. In March 2005, following the Soham murders and the subsequent Bichard Inquiry, the DCSF – Department for Children, Schools and Families – (previously the DES and the DoH) proposed that Recommendation 19 of the Bichard Inquiry should be carried out: ‘new arrangements should be introduced requiring those who wish to work with children, or vulnerable adults, to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients.’ As a result, the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 was passed, providing the legislative framework for the new Vetting and Barring scheme. This Act established the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) to make decisions about who should be allowed to work with children, the elderly and other vulnerable adults and to maintain lists of those who are barred. Under the Act, it is an offence for an employer to employ a barred person in a role with children. It is also an offence for a barred person to apply for  such a role. Employers must also advise the ISA if an individual harms a child whilst working for them. The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 merged the ISA with the CRB (Criminal Records Bureau) to form the DBS (Disclosure and Barring Services). It also differentiated between supervised and unsupervised activities. Schools should have policies and procedures for safer recruitment practice, which should be applied at every stage in the recruitment process, from advertising, references and pre-interview checks, to the selection of candidates, interviewing process and the offer of appointment. As part of the process, every adult wanting to work with children or vulnerable adults must have a DBS (Disclosure and Barring Services) check. There are three levels of DBS disclosure: -Basic disclosure: details relevant information about the individual, together with any convictions (spent or in force), cautions or warnings that the individual has received. -Enhanced disclosure: includes the same as the basic disclosure, plus any additional relevant information held by the police. -Enhanced disclosure with Barred List Check. Schools must also ensure that any adults (including cleaners and caretakers) or volunteers in the workplace do not have unsupervised access to children unless they have been DBS checked. Schools need to ensure that they provide children and young people with a happy safe environment to learn and develop, with trusted and supportive adults. Practitioners need to actively promote the well-being and welfare of every child. This includes providing a wide range of activities to promote development through play as well as formal learning. These activities should include age appropriate toys and games that meet the Toy (Safety) Regulations 1995 and are in a good state of repair. Practitioners should check for Kitemarks and CE markings. Kitemarks are symbols that show products have been tested and meet the British Standard Institute requirements. CE markings show that products meet European standards as set out by the European Community. Children also need to communicate and socialise with their peers, children from other age groups and other adults. They need to feel safe and secure in their environment so that they feel able to speak to adults about any concerns they may have, or to ask questions and seek help without fear of embarrassment. They need good role models who can help them extend their decision making skills and develop independence appropriate to their age and development level. Practitioners have a further responsibility to provide additional support to children who may have special educational needs. This may be through individual sessions within the school, liaison with external services such as educational psychologists or through the CAF (Common Assessment Framework) process. The CAF process was developed to gather and assess information in relation to a child’s needs in development, parenting and the family environment. It is a service that should be offered to children (and their families) whose additional needs are not being met through universal services within the school. Practitioners also need to protect any children who may be at risk of significant harm because of their home life and personal circumstances. There are a number of policies and procedures that should be in place in schools to ensure children and young people’s protection and safety: †¢Working in an open and transparent way – adults should make sure that another member of staff is always aware of where they are working, especially if they are alone in a room with a child, there should always be visual access or the door should remain open. †¢Duty of care – adults should always act in the best interests of the child and ensure their safety – the welfare of the child is paramount (Children Act 1989). †¢Whistleblowing – staff should understand their responsibilities to raise concerns of malpractice. Staff will be deemed to be failing in their duty to safeguard children if they do not act. †¢Listening to children – adults relationships with children should always be professional, caring and respectful. Children need to feel valued and listened to. †¢Power and positions of trust – adults working with children hold positions of trust due to their access to the children in their care, and relationships between pupils and staff will  always have an unequal balance of power – these positions should never be abused. †¢Behaviour – teachers should behave in such a way as to safeguard children’s well-being and maintain public trust in the teaching profession. †¢Physical contact – staff should ensure that any contact with children is entirely professionally appropriate. †¢Off-site visits – staff must take particular care to ensure that clear boundaries are maintained and full risk assessments must be carried out prior to a visit. †¢Recording of images – there must be age-appropriate consent from the person or their parents or carers. †¢Intimate personal care – all children have a right to safety, privacy and dignity when intimate care is required. †¢Sharing concerns and information – highly confidential information about children and their families should only ever be shared on a need to know basis, and anonymously wherever possible. †¢Security – school premises should be made secure with fencing, gates and locking doors with secure access codes to prevent unwelcome visitors and to stop children from leaving the premises unaccompanied. There should be clear locking and unlocking procedures and stringent rules for visitor access to the buildings. Contractors should be LA approved or selected using safe selection procedures and should have carried out appropriate risk assessments in advance. They should be given information to enable them to follow the school’s safety procedures. The three main areas that address the protection of children from harm in the work setting are: child protection; health and safety, and risk assessments. †¢Child protection. It is the responsibility of all adults in the setting to actively safeguard children and young people and to prevent abuse or neglect. The setting should detail how the policies and procedures should work on a daily basis and outline current legislation in this area (see Task A). The policy should describe the responsibilities of the setting as well as those of individuals. It should include a summary of the possible signs of abuse or neglect for staff to refer to (see Task D1). Staff are required to respond to any concerns in an appropriate and timely manner. There should be clear guidelines on how staff should proceed when there are concerns, or  allegations have been made, including the role of the designated CPO (Child Protection Officer) (see Task D2). Staff should also be made aware of the procedures if the allegation concerns another member of staff or the head teacher (see Section 2 below). The policy should detail external services that may be required, including names and telephone numbers etc. There should be specific guidance about how to behave if a child or young person makes an allegation of abuse. The policy should detail other procedures and policies that support staff responsibilities in this area, such as the behaviour and anti-bullying policies (see Task E) and the whistleblowing policy (see Section 3 below). †¢Health and Safety. Schools are legally required to have a Health and Safety policy to ensure that there is a plan for how health and safety is managed in the setting and that all staff are aware of all their responsibilities. This policy should be read and implemented by all staff and it should form part of the induction process for new members of staff. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 were designed to protect everyone at work. The employer in a school must take reasonable steps to ensure that staff and pupils are not exposed to risks to their health and safety. This applies to activities on or off school premises. The employer is required to carry out regular reviews of the school, its premises and activities. There should be a designated health and safety representative at every setting who is responsible for the reviews and any subsequent action. The reviews should involve regular walks around the school as well as safety checks on equipment. All electrical items should be checked annually by a qualified electrician. Fire extinguishers should also be checked annually. Staff should ensure that they use any safety equipment provided and store it safely. All materials and equipment used in schools should meet recognised safety standards. Practitioners should check for Kitemarks and CE markings. Kitemarks are symbols that show products have been tested and meet the British Standard Institute requirements. CE markings show that products meet European standards as set out by the European Community. The Workplace, (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 deal with physical conditions in the  workplace and require employers to meet minimum standards in relation to a wide range of issues, including: maintenance of buildings and equipment; lighting; provision of drinking water; temperature; ventilation; rest rooms; toilet facili ties; room dimensions and space; cleanliness; condition of floors and traffic routes. The School Premises (England) Regulations 2012 apply to all maintained schools in England, and came into effect in October 2012. This legislation works in conjunction with the Workplace Regulations, but applies specifically to school standards, which are often more stringent i.e. the provision of a medical room for pupils, or a lower maximum temperature for hand washing in children’s toilet facilities. To protect children and young people from harm on the premises, the school should consider the following: †¢Safety of the indoor and outdoor play equipment, including water and sand play. †¢Safety in the school kitchen, including the storage, preparation and cooking of food. †¢Fire safety, including maintaining clearly marked exit routes and doors. †¢Appropriately sized furniture and equipment for the children. †¢Safe storage of hazardous materials under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002. †¢Appropriate adult-child ratios at all times. †¢First aid training for staff, with sufficient numbers of first aid trained staff on the premises at all times. †¢Safety in the dining hall, including hot food, spillages, choking risks etc. †¢Vigilance in challenging unidentified adults. †¢Procedures for cleaning up bodily fluids, vomit or faeces. †¢Internet safety. †¢Hand washing facilities and practices. †¢Adaptations where necessary for children with special needs or disabilities. †¢Safety of outdoor play areas, including access, space and floor surfacing. †¢Safe storage and supervision of medicines. †¢Implementation of procedures for children and staff with illnesses, i.e. remaining away from school for 48 hours after sickness or diarrhoea. †¢A  nominated person for asbestos and legionella competency. †¢Tidiness and safety of traffic routes around the premises. Off-site educational visits have additional issues that could affect children’s safety. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 requires full risk assessments to be carried out prior to a visit. Employers must assess the risks of activities, plan measures to control the risks and inform employees of the measures. Staff must follow school and Local Authority regulations, policies and guidance, which include: evidence of parental permission; emergency procedures; first aid kit and trained staff; appropriate clothing and equipment; qualified staff for activities; adult to children ratios; special educational or medical needs of the children; approval of volunteers (including DBS checks); age and competence of the pupils and transport arrangements. Health and Safety arrangements also require members of staff to keep colleagues/senior staff aware of their whereabouts and movements. †¢Risk assessments. It is a legal requirement for all employers to carry out risk assessments. Risk assessments are a formal examination of things that could cause harm to people. The Health and Safety Executive guidance sets out a simple Five Steps to Risk Assessment: Step 1: Look for the hazards and risks. A hazard is something that can cause harm. A risk is the likelihood of harm together with the consequences should it take place. Step 2: Decide who could be harmed and how. Step 3: It is necessary to differentiate between hazards and risks and then to prioritise them, dealing with the most serious risks first. Decide whether the existing precautions are sufficient. If not, decide what other precautions should be introduced and ensure that they are put in place. Step 4: Record your actions and findings. Step 5: Review the assessment at regular intervals, or if circumstances  change, and revise if necessary. Risk assessments should be used within the school setting e.g. for a new climbing frame or for outdoor water play, and also for off-site visits regardless of their duration. The head teacher is usually responsible for risk assessments and should sign and date them after they are completed. If existing precautions are not satisfactory, then activities may have to be restricted or stopped until changes are made. Changes may involve staff training or additional equipment. Risk assessments will also need to be carried out for individuals with special needs or disabilities and specialists may come to the school to carry them out. Other individuals may require a risk assessment in certain circumstances, i.e. a pupil on crutches or temporarily in a wheelchair. Ofsted inspectors would expect risk assessments to be available as part of their inspections. Risk assessments should form part of a school’s management processes and help to formalise working practices and arrangements. They are a valuable tool for identifying problems and potential problems, monitoring situations and ensuring precautions are taken to keep children and adults safe from harm.

Compare and Contrast of Sonnet 116 and Othello Essay

What is love? Mr. Shakespeare tries his best to tackle this topic in Sonnet 116. Stating that true love is not merely a physical attractiveness, because how one looks is something that goes away in time. Love is everlasting, that it â€Å"bears it out even to the edge of doom.† (Sonnet 116 Lit Book) One can see that Shakespeare has sturdy roots in what he defines as â€Å"love†, but do his confident beliefs in what love is correspond to the love shown in his play Othello? The love in Othello seems so superficial, but maybe there is more to it than what one sees while reading it. In Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, he shares with the reader what his beliefs in love are. Shakespeare starts by saying â€Å"Let me not to the marriage of true minds/ Admit impediments.† What he means by this is that there should be nothing that stops two true minded people from being together. No matter the obstacle, challenges, or weaknesses, true love can conquer all ailments. He continues to say the true love cannot be altered with the withering of looks or physique, by saying â€Å"Love is not love/ Which alters when it alteration finds.† Love does not change, ever! Even when a loved one is disloyal, one cannot stray away from the bounds of that marriage, it is everlasting, â€Å"It is a lighthouse/ That looks on tempests and is never shaken.† He goes on to say that loves worth cannot be calculated, but the height of ones love can be felt. â€Å"Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks/ Within his bending sickle’s compass come†, Shakespeare goes deeper than usual with this line, he says that love is eternal, and cannot be influenced by time and space, but physical beauty is at the mercy of time, and death. Referring the sickle to the scythe of Death, and when death comes, one’s beauty will be forgotten, but the love you shared, will be remembered forever. Shakespeare defines love something that lasts until the end of one’s days, not something that will change over time. Shakespeare is so confident in his definition of love he ends the poem saying that if I am wrong I take back everything I have ever written, and no man has ever been in love. So does the love portrayed in Sonnet 116 compare to the love shown in Othello? In Othello Othello is in â€Å"love† with and married to Desdemona, but the jealousy placed in him by Iago overtakes him and kills her because he  thought she was having an affair with Cassio. So obviously killing the he â€Å"loves† over a rumored affair, does not shine too kindly on the true affections of Othello towards Desdemona. Shakespeare said in Sonnet 116 that true love will stand through the thick and thin, it will surpass doubts and give you the power to forgive and forget all wrongs your loved one has done. Perhaps it was Othellos quick temper that caused him to act so rashly killing his wife, or maybe it was the constant reminder of Iago of how he could rid these problems by just getting rid of them. Iago played a huge role in the death of Desdemona, he is the whole reason that all of this came to happen. Iago plays the role jealousy in Othello one can see this from the very beginning. Very early into the story Iago’s jealousy of not getting selected for a promotion enrages him and causes him to hate Othello.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Information Technology Management-Case 8

Opening Case Questions â€Å"Application: Demonstrate why Zappos would need to implement SCM, CRM, and ERP for a connected corporation? † based on the case Zappos Is Passionate for Customers. Zappos would need to implement SCM, CRM, and ERP for a connected corporation because these are all important part of business. SCM is the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability. SCM systems create the integrations or tight process and information linkages between all participants in the supply chains.Zappos would need to implement SCM because even though they have built an extranet that provides its vendors with all kinds if product information, the SCM would bring it all together and join all members of the supply chain, instead of Zappos trying to link them together one by one. CRM is a means if managing all aspects of a customer’s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty, retention and profitability. There are many benefits of CRM and if Zappos was to implement CRM they would be better able to treat customers as individuals by gaining important insights into their shopping preferences and shopping behaviors.Furthermore Zappos could ensure that these customers receive the highest levels of customer service and are offered the opportunity to purchase new products. Finally, ERP integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system ( or integrates set of IT systems), so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprise wide information about all business operations. This could help Zappos maintain a level of consistency between all departments and would allow employees to make decisions based on that consistency throughout the company.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Amazon Utilizes a Unique Method in Delivering Books to Consumers, This Research Paper

Amazon Utilizes a Unique Method in Delivering Books to Consumers, This Network Is Called Whispernet - Research Paper Example E-commerce has profoundly altered the mode through which people used to traditionally buy goods and/or services as well as conduct business activities. The major markets of e-commerce can be identified as United States, United Kingdom and Japan in the current scenario. In the e-commerce segment, Amazon faces competition from several players. In North American region, the major players of e-commerce apart from Amazon are Apple, Wal-Mart and Sears, while in Latin America,,, Mercado Livre, and UOL play a dominating role among other e-retailers. In European region, the major players are eBay,, and among other websites. Similarly, in Asian region the major e-commerce players are, and among other websites. As these websites also operate in similar segment, they tend to act as major competitors for Amazon (yStats, â€Å"Global B2C E-Commerce Players Report 2011†). Irrespective of sever al competitors in the e-commerce sector, Amazon has shown significant growth in terms of its business and revenue. Thesis Statement The paper aims to develop an unambiguous understanding towards the impact of e-commerce over the business functions of Amazon. The paper describes how Amazon has utilized e-commerce in several aspects of business in order to gain higher revenue. The paper also describes the strategies used by Amazon analysing the telecommunication approaches used by the company. Company Characteristics Historically, Amazon has tangled itself strictly with e-commerce trends and was successful in developing its business functions from mere book selling to an e-retailing company. By recognising the growth trend of internet, Amazon had commenced offering ‘virtual bookstore’ facilities providing opportunities to buyers to view books along with reviews before purchasing. Amazon commenced its operations online in 1997 with a vision to retail books with low-cost co mpared to other traditional book retailers. In 1998, Amazon expounded the product line from books to other items to strengthen its position in e-commerce (Pearson Education, â€Å"Introduction to E-commerce†). The mission of Amazon is to emerge as a customer oriented company and attain the leadership position in the online retailing market. Amazon’s objective is to satisfy the requirement and desire of customers in e-commerce segment. It is the goal of the organisation to increase the efficiency and productivity of business and turn into a preferable website for online shopping of books along with other products. Organizational Structure Presently, Amazon follows the virtual organisational structure which is a modern form of business introduced in the 21st century. As a virtual organization, Amazon possesses a widespread geologically dispersed work culture, empowered by innovative telecommunication

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Analyze how Beth and Calvins own family backgrounds influence and Essay

Analyze how Beth and Calvins own family backgrounds influence and affect them within their family and their relationship with Conrad in Ordinary People - Essay Example Calvin Jarrett, father of Conrad Jarrett is working as a Tax Attorney. His family background is pathetic because he spent his childhood in an orphanage. So he is well aware of his status and responsibilities as a father. He tried his best to be a good father but consider himself as a failure in relationship with his wife and son. The words: â€Å"Responsibility. That is fatherhood.† (Guest 9) makes clear that Calvin consider fatherhood as a serious matter and responsibility towards his son. But his problem was that he did not have any role model to follow because he spent his childhood in an orphanage. But his life at the orphanage deeply influences his family relation. He was ready to give up his affair with Molly Davis for the well being of his family. Beth shows keen interest to keep a balanced relation with his son who is too close to him. But his good character and keen interest to maintain cordial relation with his family members does not help him to maintain his family in a proper manner. Eventually, his wife decided to leave him amidst of problems. So, one can see that Beth’s family background as an orphan influence him to maintain affectionate relation with his son but it badly affect his relation with his wife and his lover. At the same time, Beth Jarrett, mother of Conrad is from a different family background which forces her to keep herself away from real life situations. She is so obsessed with imaginary vacations and wishes to keep away herself from family matters. The words of the speaker in the novel make clear that: â€Å"Self-possessed is what she is; he emphatically does not own her, nor does not have control over her, nor can he understand or even predict with reliability her moods, her attitudes.† (Guest 25) Beth was self-possessed personality and her husband did not have any control over her

Obesity Discourses and Physical Education Essay

Obesity Discourses and Physical Education - Essay Example Lesser than 18.5 is considered to be underweight, while 30.0 up to 34.9 BMI is considered to be overweight. Plotted next is 22 year-old Tom's BMI. His 58.2 BMI corresponded into class 3 obesity or what the narrator classified as morbidly obese. Less than 39.1 up to 35.0 is class 2 obesity and lesser than 34.9 which is up to 30.0 is class 1 obesity. Narrator cited that factors of his irregular BMI into fats, sugars, and salt. These are the ingredients that are rampant in to the common food that Tom had been eating combined with lack of exercise, "it resulted into a one chubby Tom," he said. Obesity is a serious disease. Organs are affected when one is overweight, much more if he is classified with obesity. One of the most in the affected organs is the heart, due to the possible artery blockage. (Medline Plus, 2008) According to the U.S. Surgeon General in their work Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001), "overweight and obesity result from an energy imbalance. This involves eating too many calories and not getting enough physical activity". In it they also cited that "body weight is the result of genes, metabolism, behavior, environment, culture, and socioeconomic status." (Medline Plus, 2008) Along with these claims, they provided that in state of obesity, one is more likely prone to have diabetes, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. In direct medical definition, obesity means having too much body fat, which is different from being simply overweight, it weighs beyond that. (Medline Plus, 2008) What is alarming is the report of the rapid increase of obesity case in the United States of America and in Australia. Baker Heart Institute reported in their study, Australia Future Fat Bomb (2005) that there are 14,000 adults in Australia that is obese. (Medindia, 2008) In the estimation, there are 70 percent of men 60 percent of women. Ages are ranging from 45 to 65 years old, having the BMI of 25 and greater. The estimation of the statistics outweighed even the United States of America. (Medindia, 2008) In United States a dramatic increase took place during the past 20 years. It was cited that "thirty states had prevalence equal to or greater than 25%; thereof these states (Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee) had a prevalence of obesity equal to o greater that 30%." (Medline Plus, 2008) U.S. Surgeon General also added that "behavior and environment play a large role causing the people to be overweight and obese. These are the greatest areas for prevention and treatment actions." (Medline Plus, 2001) Similarly to the medical experts, the "obesity crisis" received wide spread attention from sport educators, researchers, health experts and the media and they

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Revelation of religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Revelation of religion - Essay Example The Ten Commandments, in particular, were written to govern and facilitate good relationships among men, as well as between God and mankind. For instance, Commandments such as ‘Thou shall not kill’, and ‘Thou shall not steal’ were directed to man, whereas a Commandment such as ‘Thou shall not worship any other God other than me’ was meant to govern mankind’s relationship with his true God. As a Muslim, even though I know that Christianity and Islam have different beliefs, I understand that some practices and beliefs taught in Christian doctrines, for instance, are profound and aid in the wellbeing of human kind. I believe it is wrong to steal since that is what Islam has taught (Aquinas, 282). I believe just as other religions and my religion as well believe in something as well as live for that belief that a holy being is in control of our lives and everything else around us, so do the new religions. Besides, as long as their existence i s truly grounded on making the best for mankind and imparting the right and appropriate beliefs, I believe that they should be given the chance and the recognition they deserve in the world (Aquinas, 282). 3) I have heard of religious myths such as the Judeo-Christian myth. Historically and theologically, it is believed that Judeo-Christian tradition does not exist. Rather it is a secular-myth favored by persons who are not believers. I think the modern articulation of 'Judeo-Christian' is a fault that has changed the path of universal-history by the misunderstanding it has seeded in men's thoughts, if through it a person is destined to apprehend the Jewish basis of Christianity. Therefore, if the expression 'Judeo-Christian' does not connect a common beginning, it is undoubtedly a very dangerous... Right from the beginning of the essay we see that Islam has taught how to respond to heart's emotions such as anger, love, lust and happiness. It has taught how to react to an enemy or how to come to a resolution towards an argument with a friend. It has taught to care for the needy, to contribute to community and to fight for equality and justice. Islam has taught to be a better person, not to just follow my religion but believe and love it. Then the essay focuses on the factors that have made the writer look over different religions and learning those religions. The paper describes the writer's learning about the laws of Torah and the Bible. They teach you to accept new religions because, in general, religions are fascinating natural world wonders. The Ten Commandments, in particular, were written to govern and facilitate good relationships among men, as well as between God and mankind. The paper describes the writer's learning about the Judeo-Christian myth. Judeo-Christian tradit ion is grounded on a contradiction in abjection that has established the course of history at the wrong way. It connects within one breath two ideas that are completely incompatible. Next goes the numerous people, who completely misinterpret the expression ‘religion. The actual meaning of religion is to feel that condition of being tied or connected to the God – to our beginnings as well as our Infinity. In conclusion, we see a wrap up of all the religious positions that have been spoken about in the essay, going through the arguments in the essay.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Long and Foster Real Estate Companies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Long and Foster Real Estate Companies - Essay Example The Siemens system after full incorporation will serve the Long and Foster Reston office agents with an aim to bettering their services. In order to efficiently use the services of the system, the agents will need to be trained in its operations so as to ensure the smooth incorporation of the system into their every day working environment. After the successful integration of the phone system into the organization’s system, the company will immediately notice changes in its productivity levels. This system will, in the long run, boost the productivity levels of the company by more than 30% as it ensures efficiency in every task that it is programmed to undertake, including but not limited to the forwarding of calls from the office to the agents in a timely manner. This ensures that the agents are free to execute the rest of their mandates tasks thus making them more efficient. The system will also allow for the optimization and streamlining of the business itself, as well as meet all of the needs of this growing business. With this in mind, I have chosen to undertake this study with a view to studying this magnificent system and the impact it is going to have to this company both immediately after incorporation and also looking at the company as an organization that has to survive. Technology is rapidly changing in our world and an organization must embrace this change or be left behind. For an organization to run efficiently while ensuring maximum productivity, it requires resources that will facilitate its functioning noting to increase its productivity. These resources are brought in to facilitate the smooth running of the organization while enabling it to meet its set objectives. The telephone system is very important to an organization. One of the obvious reasons for this is to ensure that the organization maintains contacts with its clientele.  

Monday, September 23, 2019

Employee Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 3

Employee Relations - Essay Example internal environment & external environment. SWOT stands for S - Strength, W - Weaknesses, O - Opportunities, T - Threats and the analysis done through these four segments and is popularly known as SWOT Analysis. It helps in knowing the firms capabilities in the competitive environment in which it operates. The following diagram shows SWOT Analysis framework. The Trust employed around 1,000 staff in its Operations Supportive departments, which provides the technical, operational & professional and staff workers for the services like security, cleaning, maintaining the estate, managing the car-parking and also catering.  Ã‚   Unions’ rates up to 60%, having a membership of Unison, GMB, and TGWU represents the crafts work and skills of the employees.  Unions’ relation is good, along with 2 monthly meetings between the management and unions forms into a multi-union forum.   In the hospital, management teams have developed communication policy, this results in improving  in the feedback of staff through attitude surveys because of the relation with the top management. It is stated that the management will provide information to the staff about the changes which are going to prevail and what the reasons for such changes. Around 60% of the employees are stable in the job for more than 8 years. The groups work in an independent manner from each other and even from the organizations itself. In an effective way of management, the workers are developing demarcation and differentiating factors and their representatives of union are changing. There are issues regarding the delegatory, communicating, team-building, and employee empowerment  from the low to middle level of the members.   Those issues are subjected to be heated discussions among managers, union representatives and workers, particularly the changes which are â€Å"pushed†Ã‚  than negotiated.   There is a bad tendency of some supervisors and middle level managers to remove few

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Utilitarianism In Contemporary Ethics Essay Example for Free


Saturday, September 21, 2019

The role of gold and the gold commander

The role of gold and the gold commander This chapter will examine the role of Gold, attempt to identify what makes an effective Gold Commander, and seek to establish the extent to which the interaction between Gold and Silver requires technical knowledge and understanding. The chapter will also explore the cultural component of Gold Command, and whether organisational culture places informal barriers in the path of direct entrants being accepted to undertake the role within the Fire Rescue Service. The author intends to define and explain the research question in the context of contemporary ideas and thinking, and to develop a good understanding and insight into relevant previous research and the trends that have emerged (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003) The Gold Commander is expected to exercise leadership, which traditionally would have been developed whilst operating at the operational and tactical level (following the normal career progression path). However, the recent appointment of senior managers within the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) who have joined as direct entrants since the introduction of new appointment and promotion regulations, which has allowed multi-tier entry (ODPM, 2004) will have evidenced leadership skills, which will generally have been developed as a result of working in other occupations. As has been mentioned in a previous chapter, Adam Crozier is an example of a businessman who has demonstrated an ability to adapt and excel in different occupations, and exercise effective leadership with support from subject matter experts. With jobs as diverse as the Football Association and Royal Mail, is it possible that given an appropriate level of support, and a nominal amount of training, Crozier could also demonstrate effective leadership as a Gold Commander? A business leader may lead a team and make difficult decisions through an economic crisis, in the same way that the Gold Commander is responsible for leading their team, albeit remotely from the personnel who will be working at Bronze and Silver level. As it is recognised that effective leadership processes represent a critical factor in the success of teams in organisations (Zaccharo et al., 2001, quoted in Flin et al., 2008: 132), it is clear that the role of the Gold Commander in leading the team is vitally important to a successful outcome. The leader needs to be effective in order to play a positive role in the resolution of an incident, and it is therefore necessary to define what effective actually means, Oxford Dictionaries online simply states its meaning as successful in producing a desired or intended result ( accessed 24/11/10). However the measure of that success, and therefore effectiveness, is very subjective, indeed in the case of a tragi c incident involving loss of life, the quality of the leadership may be subject to scrutiny by judicial review or public enquiry. The Role of the Gold Commander During an emergency it may be appropriate to implement strategic or Gold command, however the FRS will rarely instigate a Gold Commander solely for an FRS operation, which has minimal impact on other organisations. However, whilst a Principal Officer1 may be the Incident Commander at a large, complex, or high profile incident, they will be operating at the tactical level when in command. In this situation Gold command is not applicable, although some co-ordination at Silver level is likely to be required. If the same incident required a higher degree of interoperability and a Strategic Coordinating Group (SCG) were formed (HMG, 2009), it will require the attendance of a commander, who may be a lower ranking officer, but who nevertheless should have an appropriate level of experience and authority to act. This individual, formally known as the Fire Gold Commander, will set tactical parameters for Silver to operate within, and will not be expected to direct or take charge of operations on the actual incident ground. As soon as circumstances permit the Principal Officer should assume command, indicating that the positions are role related (ICS, 2008, p.21-24). However, the Police will routinely designate Gold Commanders, who will assume overall command and have ultimate responsibility and accountability for the response to an incident. The Police Gold will have a secondary role to establish and chair the SCG in order to coordinate the emergency or major incident (ACPO, 2009 p.26). This would suggest a different expectation of the role of the respective Gold Commanders, with the levels of culpability/accountability appearing to contrast somewhat. If the Police Gold Commander is required to ratify and review the progress of Silver Commanders tactical plans (ACPO, 2009 p.25) and the Fire Gold Commander is required to set tactical parameters for Silver to operate within, and prioritise the personnel and resource demands (ICS, 2008), the latter suggests a more hands-off approach. This may explain why Police Gold Commanders appear to be more reluctant to accept direct entrants at the senior level. 1 Chief, Deputy or Assistant Officer 2 Gold Silver Bronze Experiential Decision Making The definition of an appropriate level of experience as stated above is subjective, and clearly open to debate. It raises the question of whether the skills required for effective command at the operational and tactical level, are identical to those required for strategic command? Since 1985, researchers have been trying to establish how decisions are made during stressful non-routine situations, with Fire Commanders being of particular interest (Klein et al, 1993). The study of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) is concerned with how experienced people, working as individuals or groups in dynamic, uncertain and often fast paced environments, identify and assess their situation, make decisions and take actions whose consequences are meaningful to them and to the larger organisation in which they operate Zsambok and Klein (1997) (cited in Flin and Arbuthnot, 2002. p. 207). It has been stated that decisions made under stress do not follow traditional decision-making processes, and inst ead fireground commanders rely on their well developed sense of intuition (Gasaway, 2007). The amount of information required to make a decision will depend on the experience and intuition of the commander, and this has been referred to as thin slicing by Gladwell (2005) which means making very quick decisions with small amounts of information, or the concept of thinking without thinking, or the ability of our unconscious to find patterns in situations and behaviour based on very narrow slices of experience. Gladwell contends that thin-slicing can have its uses or can be a mistake. If one takes a small amount of information to generalise or make decisions in whole then decisions may be made that really are incorrect. However, sometimes a small amount of relevant information is all that is required to make decisions and act. Gladwell hints that ultimately we should only rely on thin-slicing when our intuition has been honed by experience and training as truly successful decision making relies on a balance between deliberate and instinctive thinking. Clearly, the ability to thin slice derives from experience of the situation or similar environment, where the commander has successfully or unsuccessfully dealt with an incident and can anticipate the next problem that may arise, which links to recognition primed decision making (RPD). The question of whether thin slicing has its place in the SCG environment is debatable, as RPD is not usually associated with Gold level decision making, for strategic commanders may need to be discouraged from making decisions based on intuition, if a more analytical approach is more appropriate (Fredholm 1997, cited HMG 2008). Flin and Arbuthnot (2002, p. 214) considered the fields of aviation, military and the police, and suggested that Incident Commanders (IC) may adopt one of four decision strategies, depending on their assessment of the available time and level of risk: Recognition primed (intuition, gut feel) (If X then Y- little conscious effort need to retrieve Y) Procedures (written or memorised) (If X then Y conscious search) Analytical comparison of the different courses of action available (If X, which Y?) Creative (designing a novel course of action) (If X, have no Y, design new Y). The decision strategies are based on increasing levels of mental concentration, not just to retrieve information from the memory stores (long term memory), but to consciously operate on or think about the information retrieved (working memory) (Flin and Arbuthnot, 2002). Most of the studies involving NDM have related to decision making in dynamic environments where there is little time for the luxury of creative or analytical problem solving (HMG 2008). So how are prior operational and tactical experiences of a Gold Commander utilised, when faced with never before experienced occurrences such as the Buncefield Fire, the largest fire in Europe since 1945 which relied on creativity rather than prior experience to resolve successfully? (Wilsher, 2006) If decision making is dependent on the experiences of the decision maker, it must also rely on the ability of the Gold Commander to be self reflective. If an individual is unable to effectively reflect and learn from their experiences, they will be unable to apply the learning to future events. Considering Kolbs experiential learning cycle (as shown in figure 1), it could be that they have twenty years experience, or one years experience, twenty times. So time alone is not a pre-cursor to being an effective Gold Commander, its what has been learnt from the experiences during that time. Figure 1 Kolbs Learning Cycle (University of Leeds 2010) Leadership One of the key responsibilities of the Gold Commander is to work with partner agencies (ICS, 2008 p24). This will require a positive working relationship both before an incident occurs, as true interoperability is built on mutual understanding, familiarity and trust (ACPO, 2009). According to Goleman (2002: 51-52) relationship management relies on the most visible tools of leadership including persuasion, conflict management and collaboration. More recently, this was confirmed by Bradberry and Greaves (2005), and of course collaboration, and to a lesser extent persuasion, are components of leadership which will often be tested in the Integrated Emergency Management (IEM) environment. Much research has been conducted to quantify the desirable attributes required for effective leadership (Kets de Vries 1993; Higgs 2002, Parry and Meindl 2002). Although there are many different types of leaders, people will often prefer to work with a leader who has outstanding soft skills. Evidence in creasingly shows that the higher one goes in an organization, the more important EI can be (Kemper, 1999, p. 16). The Gold Commander should have developed self awareness, as the leadership of an organisation or team, can influence the work environment and affect everything from morale, to effective performance. The selection and development of leaders is amongst the oldest of personnel functions (Fiedler 2001), but much of early leadership selection was conducted by birthright (Northouse 2007). Throughout the past century considerable research has been conducted into leadership which can largely be placed into three primary categories; leadership traits, leadership behaviours and the situational context of leadership (Sashkin and Sashkin 2003). Northouse (2007) states that Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse. 2007: 3). Flin et al (2008: 129) suggest that leadership relates to the personal qualities, behaviours, styles and strategies adopted by the team leader. They further suggest that leaders come in various forms, with some being task specialists, and others good with people. Trait theories of leadership were popular during the early to mid 1900s, and worked on the assumption that great leaders are born great (Sashkin and Sashkin 2003) and that by defining the necessary traits of effective leaders the secrets of leadership could be unlocked (Densten 2003). If leadership was a result of definable traits then it would be reasonable to expect that a defined list of those traits would have been found after over 100 years of research. This has not been found. The main criticisms of the trait theories are that they fail to take account of the situational and contextual aspects of leadership, and many of the definitions of various traits are highly subjective (Northouse 2007). The debate continues as to whether an individual must possess a definite set of characteristics in order to be a leader in any given situation. Some authors have suggested that the traits necessary for battlefield leadership would be effective in a school environment, dismissing the impact of the situation (Sadler 1997). Research indicates that there are varying opinions on the level of requirement of these very different qualities. Annotating these qualities into a list form results in a comprehensive summation but does the Gold Commander have to possess all, or just some of them? Conversely, if the list is not exhaustive and it is possible that someone might have other leadership qualities. How does that equate? Emotional Intelligence Commanding an emergency clearly requires effective leadership, and by its very nature a dynamic incident will sometimes require an autocratic style, but is this always necessary? Is it the case that in the Gold environment, the application of softer skills is more advantageous, with Emotional Intelligence (EI) becoming a more important component? EI was first mentioned in an unpublished thesis in 1986, and was the subject of a US article published in 1990, where it is described as the ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and actions (Mayer and Salovey, 1990). Since that time there has been a vast amount of research and published information on the subject of EI, evidenced when the author searched for books titled Emotional Intelligence on the website of an online bookseller, returning a total of 9507 results (Amazon UK November 2010). Golemans original work is open to some debate as he seems to contradict his theory by suggesting that emotion is a biological reaction on the one hand, whereas EI can be learnt and developed. Whatever the case, it is clearly more art than science, as the interpretation of EI is subjective. It would appear that the wide interest in the subject is due to the emerging recognition of the power of EI, both in terms of personal development, with the suggested opportunity to transform an individuals life experience, health and happiness, and for transforming the effectiveness of work organisations. The developing argument is that levels of emotional intelligence are inextricably linked to levels of performance, particularly in senior positions within an organisation, a viewpoint which is often repeated (Sparrow and Knight 2006). Some organisations have embraced the principles of EI, including the Royal Air Force, which in 2002 completed a comprehensive review of leadership development, leading to the establishment of the RAF Leadership Centre. The centres website informs that the RAF seeks a particular contribution from its leaders and lists nine attributes required for effective leadership. The second attribute listed, is concerned with the possession of EI, described thus; Emotionally Intelligent Self-awareness is one of the key foundations of effective leadership. Leaders who know themselves will be able to develop self-control and subsequently understand the needs of others. This will enable them to manage relationships at all levels better and remain calm under pressure. Thus individuals will be able to function as part of a wider team, invariably multidisciplinary, increasingly joint and often multinational, in the delivery of military capability (accessed 29/11/10). In 2006 the Centre for Leadership was established at the Fire Service College. The strategy for the development of tomorrows FRS leaders is enshrined within the leadership model Aspire (HMG 2008) which has been developed in response to the identification of the importance of excellence in leadership. The model is underpinned by the FRS core values, linking transformational models of leadership, and guiding behaviours to influence leadership actions and results. The Aspire model contains some elements which can be linked to EI, including; Openness to Change Situational Awareness Confidence Resilience Effective Communication The author finds it somewhat surprising that, whilst it is obvious that the RAF has recognised the connection between emotional intelligence and effective leadership, there is no direct mention of EI within the Aspire Leadership Model and Framework for the FRS. This is somewhat disappointing Notwithstanding the above, the FRS has recognised the value of people management competences, in addition to task competencies, and that both competency sets need to be included in assessing, training and evaluating effective incident commanders. The non-technical skills of an organisations emergency response personnel are as important as their technical expertise and knowledge and application of emergency operating procedures (Crichton and Flin, 2001). Competence A dictionary definition ( of competence is: the quality of being competent; adequacy; possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification or capacity. Whereas Harvey (2004) describes it as the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities at a level of expertise sufficient to be able to perform in an appropriate work setting However acquiring skills are only part of the equation, for it is necessary to effectively perform a role as defined by Boyatzis: Effective performance of a job is the attainment of specific results (i.e. outcomes) required by the job through specific actions while maintaining or being consistent with policies, procedures conditions of the organisational environment. (Boyatzis, 1982:12) He further contends that maximum performance occurs when an individuals capability is consistent with the job demands and the organisational environment. (Boyatzis, 2007:2). Figure 2 Boyatziss model for competencies and effective performance Boyatzis model illustrates how an individuals personal values, knowledge, competencies and abilities contribute to performance in terms of the overlap with the job demands and the organisational environment. In simple terms this means that the bigger the overlap the better the performance. For the purpose of this research paper, Flins (1996) definition will be followed, which is the ability to perform consistently within an occupation to the standards expected in employment. The National Occupational Standard for a Fire Gold Commander working at the Strategic Level is EFSM 1 ( accessed 7/12/12). This standard details the technical skills and understanding which are required at this level. However, there is no mention of non-technical skills, as these are contained within the National Strategic Manager Personal Qualities and Attributes (CLG, 2009). In the emergency services, competency requirements for key decision makers are still very much based on rank rather than proven skill or ability though there is a move to change this. In the FRS, there is a shift from rank to role, where there is a role map of competences under the Integrated Personal Development System (IPDS) designed to be relevant to each level in the service. However, as with any cultural shift, it will take some time for this reality to assert itself through all ranks within the FRS (Devitt, 2009). The author finds it interesting to note that whilst there is a role map for Brigade Manager, strategic uniformed mangers within the FRS still prefer to title themselves, Chief Fire Officer. Does this perhaps suggest that the senior leadership of the FRS are not culturally ready to embrace modernisation in its truest sense? Culture Organisational culture is a system of shared values, and beliefs about what is important, what behaviours are appropriate and about feelings and relationships internally and externally. Values and cultures need to be unique to the organisation, widely shared and reflected in daily practice and relevant to the company purpose and strategy. (CIPD, 2011). In simple terms it can be referred as the way we do things around here. The leader will be affected by the culture in which they operate, and its values, structure, hierarchy and rules will dictate how they are likely to command an incident, and ultimately whether they will be judged to be effective or ineffective (Devitt, 2009 p.37). Devitt refers to the work of Reiner (1991) who studied senior police officers and identified four different types of Chief Constable, the barons, bobbies, bosses and bureaucrats. Reiner contended that their different leadership styles will be reflected in the culture of the organisation which may influence the Chair of an SCG, and thus the style and approach with which a strategic multi-agency response is operated. If the Chair of an SCG adopts the style of a boss, who controls mainly through authority not power, dont suffer criticism gladly, and see community policing as idealistic in the face of an overwhelming tide of crime, this will clearly affect the dynamics of the group Devitt (2009). Chan (1996) undertook a study of police culture, and refers to Bourdieus relational theory, which explains cultural practice as the result of interaction between cultural dispositions (habitus) and structural positions (field), situating culture in the social and political context of police work. Sackmann goes on to describe the essence of culture as the collective construction of social reality. Her cognitive model encompasses all forms of shared organised knowledge: the form of things that people have in their minds; their models for perceiving, integrating, and interpreting them; the ideas or theories that they use collectively to make sense of their social and physical reality (Sackmann 1991: 21). She classifies cultural knowledge within an organisation into four dimensions: dictionary knowledge, which provides definitions and labels of things and events within an organization; directory knowledge, which contains descriptions about how things are done generally in the organization; recipe knowledge, which prescribes what should or should not be done in specific situations; and axiomatic knowledge, which represents the fundamental assumptions about why things are done the way they are in an organisation. Axiomatic knowledge, often held by top management, constitutes the foundation for the shape and future of the organisation. These may be adjusted or revised from time to time as a result of critical evaluations or growing experience. Sackmann sees cultural cognitions as being held by groups rather than individuals. These cognitions are socially constructed, and may be changed or perpetuated by organisational processes through repeated applications. In time, these cognitions are imbued with emotions and acquire degrees of importance; they also become habits of thoughts that translate into habitual actions. With the FRS implementation of the modernisation agenda under the National Framework (although this has recently changed with the election of the coalition government), some senior fire officers are reluctant to readily accept that direct entrants or non-operational staff may be effective at undertaking a Gold Command role, whilst a number of Police Gold Commanders have expressed th eir opposition to the idea, as evidenced by the authors research..

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Glasgow Coma Scale Health And Social Care Essay

The Glasgow Coma Scale Health And Social Care Essay There are three types of cord syndromes related to spinal cord injury. These are the central cord syndrome, anterior cord syndrome, and brown-sequard syndrome or the lateral cord syndrome. The central cord syndrome is caused by injury or edema in the central cord usualy in the cervical area due to hyperextension injuries. This results to motor weakness of the upper extremities than the lower extremities. The anterior cord syndrome is caused by disk herniation or compression of the artery that runs along the front of the spinal cord. This causes loss of sensory, loss of pain and temperature but sensitivity to position and vibrations are preserved. The brown-sequard syndrome or lateral cord syndrome may be a result of penetrating injury in the spine or hemisection of the cord. This causes ipsilateral hemiplegia with loss of touch, pressure and vibration also contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits. Discuss how the Glasgow Coma Scale is utilized in determining neurological status. The Glasgow coma scale is used widely in hospitals to give a reliable, objective way of recoding the level of consciousness of a patient. The GCS has three elements, the eye response, verbal response and motor response. Each has their own grades. For the eye response 4pts for open spontaneously, 3pts to open to non-verbal command, 2pts on open in response to pain and 1pt to no response. For verbal response 5pts for talking/oriented, 4pts for confused speech/disoriented, 3pts on inappropriate words, 2pts for incomprehensible sounds and 1pt for no response. Last for motor response 6pts for obey commands, 5pts to localizes to pain, 4pts for flexion/ withdrawal from painful stimuli, 3pts to flexion in response to pain, 2pts for extension in response to pain and 1pt to no response. 15pts is the perfect score and 3 as the lowest score which indicates that the patient is in deep coma. Discuss nursing interventions related to prevention of injury in the brain-injured patient. To prevent injury for patient that has brain injury the patient must be assessed to ensure adequate oxygenation and that the bladder is not distended. Dressings and casts mast be check for constriction. The side rails must be raised and padded to avoid falling. The bed must also be lowered. Reducing environmental stimuli and to have an adequate lighting. Minimize disturbances during sleep to provide adequate rest for the patient. Medications can be given as prescribed to prevent restlessness. For incontinence catheter can be used. Written assignment Identify risk factors for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is an injury due to an unexpected accident. In short everyone can have a spinal cord injury. Still there are some risk factors. One risk factor is if you are engage in active sports or into jobs that requires lifting heavy loads. Another risk factor is for the people who are in the 16-30yrs of age because in these years people are active and many people at these age bracket is now driving and one of the leading cause of spinal cord injury is vehicular accidents. And if you have bone disorder like osteoporosis, this can cause spinal cord injury. List three clinical features of the patient with neurogenic shock. Neurogenic shock is caused by injury in the central nervous system that causes vasodilation as a result of loss of balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation. This causes low blood pressure (hypotension), decrease heart rate (bradycardia), and reduce venous return which gives a dry, warm skin. Why is autonomic dysreflexia an acute emergency situation? Autonomic dysreflexia is the over activity of the autonomic nervous system. The nerve impulses that are being send to the brain are blocked by a lesion in the spinal cord (at the t-5 level or above) which causes the brain to increase activity of the sympathetic system that results to a rise in blood pressure. The heart then sends impulse to the brain that causes the heart to slow down and the blood vessels above the spinal injury to dilate. But the brain cannot send impulse below the level of injury due to the lesion therefore blood pressure cannot be regulated. This is an acute emergency situation because if not treated immediately this may lead to seizures, stroke and even death. Develop a matrix identifying concussion, contusion, and diffuse axonal injury. Identify clinical manifestations and associated diagnostic testing. Definition Clinical manifestation Diagnostic testing Concussion Injury to the brain that is a result from an impact to the head. Ranges from mild to severe concussion Mild concussion Slightly dazed Brief loss of consciousness Severe concussion Longer loss of consciousness Longer recovery time Other manifestations Nausea and vomiting Blurred vision Confusion Fatigue Short-term memory loss Neurological function tests CT scan Contusion Traumatic brain injury or bruising of the brain because of sever acceleration-deceleration force or blunt trauma Loss of consciousness Lack of motor coordination Memory problems CT scan MRI Diffuse axonal injury This is a diffuse brain injury cause by severe head traumas. As tissue slides over tissue, a shearing injury occurs. This causes the lesions that are responsible for unconsciousness, as well as the vegetative state that occurs after a severe head injury Lack of consciousness No lucid interval Immediate coma MRI CT scan EEG electroencephalogram Discuss the long-term rehabilitation needs of the spinal cord injured patient. Within a group, ask questions regarding nursing care in the rehabilitative phase. For patients who suffered spinal cord injury rehabilitation is needed to restore as much function to the patient. The patient must understand his condition and reduce assistance with activities and let the patient be independent to improve motor function and also to increase the patients self-esteem. Discuss nursing management for the head-injured patient related to nursing applicable nursing diagnoses. Ineffective airway clearance Assess the respiratory status Check the patency of the airway Ensure airway clearance Ineffective tissue perfusion (cerebral) Assess the visual, sensory and motor functions Note for headache, dizziness, altered mental status and personality changes Elevate HOB (10 degrees) and maintain head/neck in midline or neutral position to promote circulation and venous drainage Decrease intracranial adaptive capability Monitor patients neurological vital signs (GCS) Monitor ICP Assess the patients reflexes Decrease environmental stimuli Risk for injury Provide safe environment Raise side rails Lower bed Web output NURSING MANAGEMENT OF ADULTS WITH SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY Base on the study that I have read, the neuroscience nurse is the one who intervenes to maintain and manage intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patience with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The prevention of complications commonly associated with TBI is also involved in the management of care for TBI patients such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), hyperglycemia, and excessive protein loss. In maintaining or decreasing of ICP, this study recommended guidelines. First, an uncontrolled intracranial hypertension leads to an absence of cerebral perfusion and results in brain death thus, the recommended ICP according to the original Guidelines for the Management of Severe head Injury should be at less than 20mmHg (Bullock, Chestnut, Clifton, 1995), as stated in the study. Second, the draining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -this decreases ICP. As stated in the study, according to the Brain Trauma Foundation, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, the Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care (2000), the first step to reduce intracranial hypertension is through ventricular drainage. As early as 1960, Lund demonstrated that removal of CSF via ventriculostomy temporarily decreases ICP (Lund, 1960). Draining as little as 3ml of CSF was found to decrease ICP by 10.1% relative to the baseline value of 10 minutes in 58 patients with severe TBI (Kerr, Weber, Sereika, Wi lberger, Marion, 2001). Protocols for CSF diversion range from time- dependent (leave drainage open for 5 minutes, then close), CSF-volume-dependent (drain 5cc then close), to continuous drainage (open all the time, closed at intervals to obtain an accurate ICP reading). This is supported by Monroe- Kellie hypothesis stating that a normal ICP can be maintained as one component in the cranial compartment (brain, blood and CSF) increases as long as there is a corresponding decrease of another component- therefore, decrease of one component decreases ICP. Third is not inducing hyperventilation to decrease ICP. Hyperventilation was routinely used to manage severe TBI. Studies done in the 1990s demonstrated the vasoconstriction associated with hyperventilation also resulted in decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF), thus, it is recommended to maintain normocapnia in most patients with severe TBI (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). Fourth is administering sedation- it prevents ICP increa ses. A study of 17 patients with severe TBI found ICP was significantly higher and there was a significant decrease in CPP with endotracheal suctioning among patients who were inadequately sedated compared to those patients who were well- sedated with proforol (Gemma et al., 2002) According to the study, a randomized controlled trial of 42 patients with TBI found the use of Proforol (rather than morphine) resulted in significantly lower ICPs by post- injury day 3, with less use of neuromuscular blockers, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates and less CSF drainage was required ( Kelly et al., 1999). Fifth is administration of Mannitol is effective in decreasing ICP. Guidelines for Management of Severe TBI, 3rd Edition states, mannitol is effectice for control of raised ICP at doses of 0.25 gms/kg to 1.0 gm/kg body weight (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). The diuretic effect of mannitol can cause increase Na+ and serum osmolarity levels, this should be monitored at regular intervals . Mannitol is infused via IV bolus through a filter. Mannitol 20% contains 20g of mannitol in 100cc. 80% of 100g dose appears in the urine within 3 hrs. of infusion. Sixth is to elevate head of bed (HOB) 30 degrees to maintain or decrease ICP- this is thought to promote intracranial venous return and increase CSF drainage from the head, resulting in decreased ICP (Fan, 2004). Four controlled studies with sample sizes ranging from 5- 38 patients with severe TBI found significant decreases in ICP with HOB elevations of 30 degrees (Moraine, Berrà ©, and Mà ©lot, 2000; Ng, Lim, Wong, 2004; Schulz- Subner Thiex, 2006; Winkleman, 2000). Seventh is removing or loosening rigid cervical collars- according to the study, it may decrease ICP. These collars may hold back venous blood flow and cause pain and discomfort, elevating ICP. Eight is administering intensive insulin therapy- it may reduce ICP. Hyperglycemia is common in severe TBI and has a negative effect on outcome. A study was con ducted with a result of lower mean and minimal ICPs to those treated with intensive insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels lower than 110 mg/dl than in subjects treated with insulin only when their glucose levels exceeded 220 mg/dl. The ninth is maintenance of normothermia- it may prevent ICP increases. Hyperthermia is prevalent in the TBI population, as high as 68% within 72 hours of injury (Rumana, Gopinath, Uzura, Valadka, Robertson, 1998). There have been no long- term outcome studies in the effect of normothermia in TBI, but a study found an increase in brain temperature was associated with significant increase in ICP; as fever ebbed, there was significant decrease in ICP. In controversial treatments for refractory intracranial hypertension, first is the inducing of moderate hypothermia- it may decrease ICP in refractory intracranial hypertension. There are multiple human studies that have demonstrated decreased ICP with the induction of moderate hypothermia (33-36 degrees Celsius) in patients with severe TBI (Clifton, Miller et al., 2001; Marion, Obrist, carlier, Penrod, Darby, 1993; Polderman, Tjong Tjin, Peerdeman, Vandertop Girbes 2002; Tokutomi, Miyagi, Morimoto, karukay, Shigemori, 2004; Tokutomi et al., 2003). Second is admistering hypertonic saline. Third is the administration of high- dose barbiturates- are thought to suppress cerebral metabolism, reducing cerebral metabolic demand and cerebral blood volume. In maintaining adequate CPP or increasing CPP, first is maintaining CP b/w 50- 70mmHg- optimized cerebral perfusion (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). Second is administering norepinephrine, it may maintain adequate CPP or increase CPP. Third is elevating HOB 30 degrees- not only it increases venous drainage from head, it also can decrease perfusion. Fourth is CSF drainage- the decreasing volume of CSF decreases total intracranial volume. In preventing DVT, pharmacologic treatment may be safe for DVT prophylaxis. Agency for healthcare Research and Quality recommends use of prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism for at- risk patients. In adequate nutrition, first initiating nutrition within 72 hours of injury- according to the study, it may improve outcomes. It is recommended that patients be fed so that full caloric requirements are met by post injury day 7 (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). Second is providing continuous intragastric feeding- it may improve tolerance. According to the study, continuous feeding was better tolerated and achieved 75% of nutritional goals faster than bolus feeding in 152 consecutive patients admitted to neurosurgical intensive care units (20% of whom had sustained severe TBI; Rhoney, Parker, Formean, yap, Coplin, 2002). In preventing seizures, administering antiepileptic drugs decreases incidence of early posttraumatic seizures. Guidelines for the Management of Severe TBI, 3rd Edition recommends the use of anticonvulsants to decrease the incidence of post traumatic seizure within the fisrt 7 days of injury when the brain is particularly vulnerable to secondary injury- involves multiple metabolic mechanisms that result from interruption of blood flow and oxygen to undamaged cells, producing anaerobic metabolism, inadequate synthesis of ATP, or cellular acidosis. Then continuous EEG monitoring has been used to identify a 20% seizure incidence with 50% of patients identified as non-convulsive (Vespa Nuwer, 2000) Reference: Nursing Management of Adults with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, AANN Clinical Practice Guidelines Series

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Mcdonaldization: Health In A Fastfood Society Essay -- essays research

McDonaldization: Health in A Fastfood Society   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  McDonaldization, is the term Ritzer derived from the McDonalds' fast food chain to describe the state of our society. Ritzer claims our social institutions have become completely dehumanized in the form of a bureaucracy. Health care is an example of one institution that is characterized by the four components of bureaucracy: efficiency, predictability, control and quantification.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the past, health care was more simplistic in nature. House calls were no unheard of, and doctors knew all of their patients and their families on a personal level. The doctor who delivered your parents would deliver you as well as your future children. Follow-ups were quite normal; doctors were concerned with your progress for their own peace of mind.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Over time the modern health care system emerged into the bureaucratic organization that it is. All the characteristics depicted by Ritzer are easily seen when one examines health care. From a normal trip to the doctor for a routine check-up or even a specific ailment to rush trip in the emergency room predictability, control, efficiency, and quantification are obvious.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quantification is easily seen when you first step into a hospital waiting room and a huge sign tells you a number before you are even able to speak to anyone. After waiting a while your number is called, you must give your health card number to the receptionist before continuing. You are then given a file number, which is your only identity for the time you spend within the hospital environment. After seeing the doctor you may come out with a few prescriptions which furthers your nameless ordeal. When you drop nameless ordeal. When you drop into a pharmacy to have a prescription filled the first thing they ask is if you know your prescription number. If you cannot remember it, your actual name is a secondary possibility as a means of identification. Before paying you may have to show your Blue Cross card number or other insurance cards as well, in all it is a very dehumanizing, impersonal process.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Efficiency is another characteristic that is prominent in the hospital situation. To make sure things more smoothly you must call ahead and make an appointment with the reception... ...ike health care workers has come in the face of a demand for efficiency and quantification. It is hard to say who is victimized most by this dehumanization; the doctors who must deny their humanity or their patients who must go to them for treatment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In conclusion when one applies the four components of McDonaldization to our present health care system one discovers that they are aptly applicable. Quantification is seen when one thinks about how our medical identity is comprised of a series of different numbers. Efficiency is supposed to occur with phone-in prescriptions and appointments. Control is assured by a doctor's capacity to make life or death decisions. As for predictability it is common knowledge as to what routine one follows to receive treatment. The irrationality is how impersonal and inefficient the whole system can become through overworked doctors and other professionals. The iron cage is how the patients of these stressed doctors feel from these doctors' ignorance and neglect. In all it is true that the health care system is one social institution that does successfully meet all of Ritzer's requirements for a McDonaldized institution.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Imaginative :: essays papers

Imaginative It is strange how things can change in short a period of time. It was only two years ago that Philip Morris was a dwindling tobacco company millions of dollars in debt. The stock market was facing a rapid decline in value. Stocks plummeted sharply in all areas. Like every other business in the country, Phillip Morris was at its lowest phase. Massive layoffs as well as severe cutbacks haunted the executives. After the stock value of Phillip Morris shares plummeted, the company’s chief stockholders were selling their stakes at pennies on the dollar. I took this desperate time to finally realize a dream I have had for years. I had amassed a large wealth from previous investments and projects. Reverting a public company with millions of shareholders into a private enterprise would be the most difficult task I would ever accomplish. I was able to deal with the major stockholders to purchase a vast majority of the company, about 75%. After several company shareholder meetings, I determined to revert the company to a private business, and I worked out a buyout for all remaining stockholders. Of course this also was made cheap due to the failing economy. Phillip Morris made cigarettes, Miller beer, Kraft products, and leveraged and directed finance leases. I planned on playing with the public’s emotions on â€Å"Big Tobacco Companies† in helping me with my plan. As soon as the previously great Phillip Morris was sold to me, we ceased production of the once lucrative cigarette portion of our portfolio. This became a great media exposure. We sold the concept of becoming a healthy family business concerned with the welfare of the public. This company now owes a great deal to the slithering lobbyists who helped make what Phillip Morris once was. If it weren’t for the lobbyists, I would still be obligated to comply with the court judgments for the idiots who became ill due to smoking related diseases. Those people did not even deserve the money they were rewarded. How could someone not know that cigarettes caused cancer, emphysema, or impotence, among other illnesses? I was glad the lobbyist were able to stop anyone searching for damages due to smoking, and all it cost me was dissolving the cigarette section of the company. I now know that if I pay a lobbyist enough, they can get a Senator to do anything I want.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Depression Level of 4th Year College Students

Acknowledgement The researcher proudly acknowledge to the ones who supported this research for making it possible to accomplish this factual research. First of all, the researcher would proudly acknowledge our Almighty God for bestowing us the eternal blessings of knowledge in this research, for securing us from harm at all times and gave us guidance to finish this research. The researcher would also proudly acknowledge our beloved professor Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce, for giving enough knowledge to perform and finish this research.This research will surely prepare us for the future challenges and it will help us to become a far more responsible and hardworking person. Also, I would also like to give thanks to the 4th year college students of the University of the East for their swift cooperation in answering the researcher’s depression test. DEDICATION The researcher dedicates this study to her beloved family especially to her mom to show her efforts, gratitude, sincerity and most of all her unending love and appreciation for all she have sacrificed for her. To the researcher’s friends who gave support and encouragement.To the researcher’s beloved Professor, Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce, who taught her how to trust herself and to have a positive outlook in life. Abstract Research Title:The Depression Level of 4th Year College Students of the University of the East Researcher:Criselle Joy M. Masungsong Degree Granted:Bachelor of Science, Major in Psychology Granting Institution:College of Arts and Sciences, University of the East, Manila Research design:Descriptive Method Respondents:50 4th year college students Statistical Tools Used:T-test for independence samples, Chi-square Summary . The age of the respondents ranges from 18-24 years old. The respondent with the age of 18 have the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 19 have the frequency of 16 or 32%. The respondents with the age of 20 have the frequency of 19 or 38%. Th e respondents with the age of 21 have the frequency of 10 or 20%. The respondent with the age 22 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondent with the age of 23 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 24 have the frequency of 2 or 4%. 2. The year level is all 4th year college students. 3.The number of male and female respondents is equal. There are 25 male respondents and 25 female respondents which equals to 50 respondents. 4. The 2 respondents with the age of 20 have High Depression Level. The 3 respondents with the age of 19 and 20 have Above Average Depression Level. The 9 respondents with the age of 19, 20, and 21 have Average Depression Level. The 22 respondents with the age of 19,20,21,23 and 24 have Below Average Depression Level. The 14 respondents with the age of 19, 20, 21 and 22 have Low Depression level. 5. The Depression level of 4th year college students is 3. 7. It means the respondents have Below Average Depression Level. 6. The Depression leve l of male respondents is 3. 64 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. The Depression level of female respondents is 3. 71 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. 7. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 8. The obtained value of 0. 7 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Conclusion The researcher came up with the following conclusions: 1. The majority of the respondents according to age in the demographic profile are 20 years old. The respondents according to gender in the demographic profile are equal. The respondents according to year level are all 4th year college students. 2.The level of depression of 4th year college students by age is the same. The students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. 3. The level of depression of 4th year college students by gender is the same. The students have below average depression level. The gender cannot affect the depression level of 4th year college students. Both male and female can have high depression, above average depression, average depression, below average depression and low depression level. 4. The year level of all respondents is the same so it won’t have any effect on the depression level of the respondents. . The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 6. T he obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Recommendation 1.Researcher must have wider range of research to support her study and to prove if there is a significant difference between the depression level of 4th year college students at University of the East-Manila. 2. Add more respondents to be able to gather better proof and understanding in depression level of 4th year college students. 3. The researcher should study more than just one year level. 4. Look for more studies that are related in the researcher’s topic. 5. Never lose hope. 6. Depression can be fought with a positive outlook in life and control to yourself. Chapter 1 Problem and its Background IntroductionDepression has been recognized as a common disease. It  is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless,  worthless, guilty, irritable, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, or problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions; and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may be present.Depression can last for years and can end up people in mental hospitals. Some used to say their depressed but they only feel sad. Too much and too long sadness can become depression. This research will contain factual information regarding the depression degree of people’s current state of adolescence and young adults. At this age is the beginning of difficult and complicated trials anchored with di fferent types of negative elements such as temptation, greed or jealousy in their journey to adulthood, this is also the stage of building one’s selves hidden talent and forging of who they will become in the future.Background of the study The researcher used many sources and books to conclude and finish the study. So many time was given and sleepless nights to endure. Complete understanding was used in the research to have a good result. Depression was called melancholia many years ago. The name was changed and become clinical depression, major depression or simply depression and commonly referred to as major depressive disorder by many health care professionals. There is no single cause for depression.Many factors play a role including genetics, environment, life events, medical conditions, and the way people react to things that happen in their lives. Research shows that depression runs in families and some people inherit genes that make them more likely to get depressed. Not everyone who has the genetic makeup for depression gets depressed, though. Some can get depress even if they don’t have genetic makeup for depression. The death of a family member, friend, or pet can go beyond normal grief and sometimes lead to depression.Other difficult life events, such as when parents divorce, separate, or remarry, can trigger depression. Even events like moving or changing schools can be emotionally challenging enough that a person becomes depressed. For some teens, a negative, stressful, or unhappy family atmosphere can affect their self-esteem and lead to depression. This can also include high-stress living situations such as poverty; homelessness; and violence in the family, relationships, or community. Substance use and abuse also can cause chemical changes in the brain that affect mood — lcohol and some drugs are known to have depressant effects. The negative social and personal consequences of substance abuse also can lead to severe unhap piness and depression. Certain medical conditions can affect hormone balance and therefore have an effect on mood. Some conditions, such as hypothyroidism, are known to cause a depressed mood in some people. When these medical conditions are diagnosed and treated by a doctor, the depression usually disappears. Theoretical Framework The researcher was able to search about Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aaron T.Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. Also, the researcher was able to study about Aaron Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression. Different cognitive behavioral theorists have developed their own unique twist on the Cognitive way of thinking. According to Dr. Aaron Beck, negative thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs are typically the primary cause of depressive symptoms. A direct relationship occurs between the amount and severity of someone's negative thoughts and the severity of their depressive symptoms.In other words, the more negative thoughts you experience, the more depressed you will become. Beck also asserts that there are three main dysfunctional belief themes (or â€Å"schemas†) that dominate depressed people's thinking: 1) I am defective or inadequate, 2) All of my experiences result in defeats or failures, and 3) The future is hopeless. Together, these three themes are described as the Negative Cognitive Triad. When these beliefs are present in someone's cognition, depression is very likely to occur (if it has not already occurred).Beck's main argument was that depression was instituted by one's view of oneself, instead of one having a negative view of oneself due to depression. This has large social implications of how we as a group perceive each other and relate our dissatisfactions with one another. Abela and D'Alessandro's (2002) study on college admissions is a good example of this pheno menon. In their study they found that the student's negative views about their future strongly controlled the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes and the increase in depressed mood.The research clearly backed up Beck's claim that those at risk for depression due to dysfunctional attitudes who did not get into their college of choice then doubted their futures, and these thoughts lead to symptoms of depression. Therefore, the students' self-perceptions became negative after failing to get into college, and many showed signs of depression due to this thinking. Conceptual Framework InputProcessOutput The diagram shows how the study is being conducted. The 4th year college students are the independent variable and the level of depression is the dependent variable.To determine whether the independent variable really affects the dependent variable, a depression test is processed. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents according to their: 1. Age; 2. Gender 3. Course/Year? 2. What is the level of depression of the respondents? 1. Is there significant difference between the depression level of male and female adolescents? 2. Is there significant difference between the ages of adolescents in their depression level? 3. Is there significant difference between the year level of adolescents in their depression level?Hypotheses Null: There is no significant difference between the level of depression of male and female 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila. There is no significant difference between the ages of 4th year college students in their level of depression? There is no significant difference between the year level of 4th year college students in their level of depression? Alternative: There is a significant difference between the level of depression of male and female 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila.There is a significant difference between the ages of 4th year col lege students in their level of depression? There is a significant difference between the year level of 4th year college students in their level of depression? Assumption Females are more sensitive than males. Female thinks too much which leads to stress and with prolonged problems and sadness, depression is developed. Male doesn’t think too much about their problems in life. They just play computer games or do their interest to help themselves and make their sadness fade. The researcher will assume that females have higher depression level than males.Significance of the study This study will help to guide the readers on understanding of what is really depression, the main causes of depression especially at their age and understanding the theoretical studies of depression that will broaden the concept of readers regarding the topic of this research. The significance of this study will make a person aware of their Depression level and whether they have low/high depression leve l. The researcher will help the respondents in improving and knowing what to do for their selves. Scope and Delimitation of the StudyThis study limits its respondents to 50 4th year college students. These 50 persons are students in University of the East Manila, specifically ranging from age of 18 up to 24 years old. The researcher provided definitions, backgrounds about the study, tests, reasons and preventions, computations and frameworks. Definitions Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. Beck’s Depression Inventory is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression.Insomnia (or sleeplessness) is most often defined by an individual's report of sleeping difficulties Stress It refers to the consequence of the failure of an organism  Ã¢â‚¬â€ human or other animal  Ã¢â‚¬â€ to respond ad equately to mental, emotional, or physical demands, whether actual or imagined. Themes (or â€Å"schemas†) are a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES According to the article of â€Å"Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest† made by: Flavio F.Marsiglia, Stephen Kulis, Hilda Garcia Perez, and Monica Bermudez-Parsai Hopelessness is conceptualized as an individual's negative expectancy regarding the future, and it is characterized by negative emotions, pessimistic expectations, and loss of pleasure in life (Beck. Weissman,Lester, , 1974; Heilemann, Coffey-Love, , 2004). Hopelessness is the expectation that negative outcomes are inevitable or that positive outcomes will not develop. These expectations are paired with the feeling that one cannot do anything to change the future (Abela, Gagnon, & Auerbach, 2007).Individuals who are pessimistic about t he causes and consequences of events and who tend to ascribe negative self-characteristics after negative events have been found to be more at risk for hopelessness and depression (Brozina & Abela, 2006). According to the article of: Wayne Katon, Jurgen Unutzer, and Joan Russo, patients with major depression have a great deal of heterogeneity in the level of depression severity, number of earlier episodes, comorbidity with dysthymia, anxiety disorders, chronic medical disorders and chronic ain, comorbidity with personality disorders and maladaptive coping styles (such as high levels of neuroticism), and socioeconomic status. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter shows the information and further make clear of the present study. This part include the research design, the determination of the sample size, sampling design and technique, the description of the subjects, the research instrument, and validation of the instrument, data gathering and procedure, data processing method and the statistical treatment of data. RESEARCH DESIGNIn this study, the researcher used the descriptive method as the research design to present the study. This method shows the different sides and the nature of the study. The researcher will measure the variables depression level, age, gender and the year level and determine the nature and difference between them. SAMPLING DESIGN AND TECHNIQUE In selecting the respondents of the study, the researcher used the convenience sampling method. The researcher asked the approval of the selected students from 4thy year college students from the University campus. THE SUBJECTSThe researcher gathered respondents from 4th year college students of the University of the East to serve as samples in the said study. THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY The instrument used by the researcher was a self-constructed test of Depression test. Table 1 The table shows the level of Depression based on their weighted mean. |Mean Score | Verbal Interpretation | |1. 0 0-1. 80 |High Depression | |1. 1-2. 60 |Above Average Depression | |2. 61-3. 40 |Average Depression | |3. 41-4. 20 |Below Average Depression | |4. 21-5. 00 |Low Depression | VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT USEDThe Depression test was face-validated by Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce and went through several modifications. TREATMENT OF THE DATA 1. The statistical treatment of the data that was used in the study is the percentage, weig Formula for weighted mean: X=? X N Where: ?X= total scoresN= Number of respondents 2. Formula for the computation of t-test for 2 independent samples. t= X1-X2Where: vS1 S2X1 / X2= means of independent samples +N1 / N2= total of samples N1 N2S= standard deviation S=? X12-(? X1)2 + ? X22-(? X2)2d. f. = N1 + N2 – 2 N1 N2 N1+N2-2 3. Formula for Chi square, a test of relationship/difference.X2= (fo-fe)2E= R x Kd. f. = (R-1) (K-1) fe T Where:Where: fo= observed frequencyR= total row scores fe= expected frequencyK= total column scores T= total scores W eighted mean, T-test and Chi-square Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data The researcher finished the table after gathering all the data needed. These tables show the results and serve as the tool to clearly understand the study. 1. Demographic profile of the respondents according to the following: Table 1. 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Age Age |Frequency |Percentage | |18 |1 |2% | |19 |16 |32% | |20 |19 |38% | |21 |10 |20% | |22 |1 |2% | |23 |1 |2% | |24 |2 |4% | |Total |50 |100% |The table above shows the age of the respondents ranging 18 to 24 years old, the age that accumulated the largest frequency is the 20 years old which has total 19 and percentage of 38%. Then the lowest frequency is the 18, 22 and 23 years old which has only 1 and percentage of 2%. The other frequency are the 19 years old which has the frequency of 16 and percentage of 32% and the 21 years old which has frequency of 10 and percentage of 20%. A lso, the 24 years old this has frequency of 2 and percentage of 4%. The overall frequency is 50 and with the percentage of 100%. Table 1. 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Gender Gender |Amount |Percentage | |   |   |   | |M |25 |50% | |F |25 |50% | |   |50 |100% | The table above shows the number of female and male respondents. The number of female and male respondents is equal. Table 1. 3Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Year/Level |Year/Level |Frequency |Percentage | |Fourth Year |50 |100% | |Total: |50 |100% | The table above shows that all of the respondents are 4th year college students with the frequency 50 and percentage of 100%. 2. Level of depression of the respondents. Table 2 Gained Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation Respondent # |Mean Score |Verbal Interpretation | |1-50 |3. 67 |Below Average Depression | The table above shows that the level of depression of the 50 respondents was i n the verbal interpretation of Below Average Depression. 3. Significant difference between the depression level of male and female adolescents. Table 3 T-value obtained by the respondents in the depression test |d. f. |Obtained Value |Critical Value |Decision | |48 |0. 3 |2. 0126 |No significant difference | Since the obtained value of 0. 33 is lower than the critical value of 2. 0126 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the male and female 4th year college students in their depression level. 4. Significant relationship between gender and age of adolescents to depression. |Profile Variable |df |Obtained Value |Critical Value |Decision | |Age |24 |25. 3 |36. 42 |No significant difference | |Gender |4 |0. 57 |9. 49 |No significant difference | Age The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. This proves that 4th year students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. Gender The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. The gender does not affect the depression level of male and female 4th year college students. Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations In this chapter, the researcher will mainly discuss the summary of the all findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Summary 9. The age of the respondents ranges from 18-24 years old. The respondent with the age of 18 have the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 19 have the frequency of 16 or 32%.The respondents with the age of 20 have the frequency of 19 or 38%. The respondents with the age of 21 have the frequency of 10 or 20%. The respondent with the age 22 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondent with the age of 23 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 24 have the frequency of 2 or 4%. 10. The year level is all 4th year college students. 11. The number of male and female respondents is equal. There are 25 male respondents and 25 female respondents which equals to 50 respondents. 12. The 2 respondents with the age of 20 have High Depression Level. The 3 respondents with the age of 19 and 20 have Above Average Depression Level.The 9 respondents with the age of 19, 20, and 21 have Average Depression Level. The 22 respondents with the age of 19,20,21,23 and 24 have Below Average Depression Level. The 14 respondents with the age of 19, 20, 21 and 22 have Low Depression level. 13. The Depression level of 4th year college s tudents is 3. 67. It means the respondents have Below Average Depression Level. 14. The Depression level of male respondents is 3. 64 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. The Depression level of female respondents is 3. 71 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. 15. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 16. The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Conclusion The researcher came up with the following conclusions: 7. The majority of the respondents according to age in the demographic profile are 20 years old. The respondents according to gender in the demographic profile are equal. The respondents according to year level are all 4th year college students. 8.The level of depression of 4th year college students by age is the same. The students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. 9. The level of depression of 4th year college students by gender is the same. The students have below average depression level. The gender cannot affect the depression level of 4th year college students. Both male and female can have high depression, above average depression, average depression, below average depression and low depression level. 10. The year level of all respondents is the same so it won’t have any effect on the depression level of the respondents. 11. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 12. The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Recommendation 7. Researcher must have wider range of research to support her study and to prove if there is a significant difference between the depression level of 4th year college students at University of the East-Manila. 8.Add more respondents to be able to gather better proof and understanding in depression level of 4th year college students. 9. The researcher should study more than just one year level. 10. Look for more studies that are related in the researcher’s topic. 11. Never lose hope. 12. Depression can be fought with a positive outlook in life and control to yourself. BIBLIO GRAPHY Webiology †¢ http://depression. about. com/cs/diagnosis/l/bldepscreenquiz. htm †¢ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_depression †¢ http://helpguide. org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment. htm †¢ http://kidshealth. org/teen/your_mind/mental_health/depression. html# †¢ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Depression_%28mood%29 †¢ www. mentalhelp. net www. wikipedia. com †¢ http://itl. nist. gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda3672. htm APPENDIX A Table for the Computation Table of Weighted Scores of the Respondents and Verbal Interpretation |Male | |Respondent # |Weighted Scores |Verbal Interpretation | |1 |3. 22 |Average Depression | |2 |4. 32 |low Depression | |3 |4. 2 Below Average Depression | |4 |2. 5 |Above Average Depression | |5 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |6 |4. 28 |low Depression | |7 |3. 06 |Average Depression | |8 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |9 |3. 64 |Below Average Depression | |10 |3. 4 |Average De pression | |11 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |12 |3. 48 |Below Average Depression | |13 |4. 26 |low Depression | |14 |3. 68 |Below Average Depression | |15 |4. 36 |low Depression | |16 |4. 22 |low Depression | |17 |3. 2 |Below Average Depression | |18 |3. 28 |Average Depression | |19 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |20 |3. 86 |Below Average Depression | |21 |4. 3 |low Depression | |22 |3. 84 |Below Average Depression | |23 |3. 58 |Below Average Depression | |24 |3. 6 |Average Depression | |25 |1. 52 |High Depression | |Female | |Respondent # |Weighted Scores |Verbal Interpretation | |1 |4. 2 |Below Average Depression | |2 |3. 02 |Average Depression | |3 |3. 4 |Average Depression | |4 |4. 18 |Below Average Depression | |5 |3. 76 |Below Average Depression | |6 |4. 38 |Low Depression | |7 |3. 72 |Below Average Depression | |8 |3. 88 |Below Average Depression | |9 |3. 8 |Below Average Depression | |10 |4 |Below Average Depression | |11 |3. 2 |Average Depression | |12 |2. 54 |Abo ve Average Depression | |13 |4. 56 |Low Depression | |14 |3. 98 |Below Average Depression | |15 |4. 54 |Low Depression | |16 |3. 8 |Below Average Depression | |17 |4. 14 |Below Average Depression | |18 |4. 6 |Low Depression | |19 |4. 5 |Low Depression | |20 |2. 9 |Average Depression | |21 |4. 3 |Low Depression | |22 |3. |Below Average Depression | |23 |1. 14 |High Depression | |24 |4. 54 |Low Depression | |25 |2. 28 |Above Average Depression | APPENDIX B Computation for the t-test independent Sample |Female |X? 2 | |   |   | |1 |17. 64 | |2 |9. 1204 | 3 |9. 2416 | |4 |17. 4724 | |5 |14. 1376 | |6 |19. 1844 | |7 |13. 8384 | |8 |15. 0544 | |9 |14. 2884 | |10 |16 | |11 |10. 6276 | |12 |6. 4516 | |13 |20. 7936 | |14 |15. 8404 | 15 |20. 0116 | |16 |12. 1104 | |17 |17. 1396 | |18 |21. 16 | |19 |20. 25 | |20 |8. 41 | |21 |18. 49 | |22 |15. 21 | |23 |1. 2996 | |24 |20. 6116 | |25 |5. 1984 | |Male |X? 2 | 1 |10. 3684 | |2 |18. 6624 | |3 |17. 64 | |4 |6. 25 | |5 |14. 2884 | |6 |18. 3184 | |7 |9. 3636 | |8 |14. 2884 | |9 |13. 2496 | |10 |9. 8596 | |11 |14. 2884 | |12 |12. 1104 | 13 |18. 1476 | |14 |13. 5424 | |15 |19. 0096 | |16 |17. 8084 | |17 |15. 3664 | |18 |10. 7584 | |19 |14. 2884 | |20 |14. 8996 | |21 |18. 49 | |22 |14. 7456 | |23 |12. 8164 | |24 |9. 9856 | 25 |2. 3104 | T= X? – X? [pic] [pic] = [pic]- [pic] + [pic] – [pic] N1 N2 N1 + N2 -2 [pic]= 340. 85. 04 – (90. 94) 2 + 360. 182 – (92. 62)2 25 25 25+25-2 [pic]= 340. 85. 04 – (8270. 0836) + 360. 182 – (8578. 4644) 25 25 25+25-2 = (340. 8504 – 330. 803344) + (360. 182 – 343. 138576) 48 = 10. 047056 + 17. 043424 48 = 27. 09048 48 [pic] = 0. 56 APPENDIX C Computation for Chi square Formula: E=R x KX2= (fo-fe)2 T fe Where:Where: E= expected frequencyfo= frequency observed R= total row scoresfe= frequency expected K= total column scores T= total scores Table According to Profile Variable Age Age |High |Above Average |Average |Below Average |Low |Total | |18 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |1 | |19 |0 |2 |2 |7 |5 |16 | |20 |2 |1 |4 |8 |4 |19 | |21 |0 |0 |3 |3 |4 |10 | |22 |0 |0 |0 |0 |1 |1 | |23 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |1 | |24 |0 |0 |0 |2 |0 |2 | | |2 |3 |9 |22 |14 |50 | X2=-25. 13 d. f. = (r-1) (k-1) = (4-1) (4-1) = (3) (3) = 9 C. V. 0. 05= 36. 42 |fo |fe |(fo – fe) |(fo-fe)2 |(fo-fe)2/fe | |   |   |   |   |   | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 4 | |0 |0. 64 |0. 64 |0. 4096 |0. 64 | |2 |0. 76 |1. 24 |1. 5376 |2. 023157895 | |0 |0. 4 |0. 4 |0. 16 |0. 4 | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 04 | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 04 | |0 |0. 08 |0. 08 |0. 0064 |0. 08 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 6 | |2 |0. 96 |1. 04 |1. 0816 |1. 126666667 | |1 |1. 14 |-0. 14 |0. 0196 |0. 017192982 | |0 |0. 6 |0. 6 |0. 36 |0. 6 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 06 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 06 | |0 |0. 12 |0. 12 |0. 0144 |0. 12 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 8 | |2 |2. 88 |-0. 88 |0. 7744 |0. 268888888 | |4 |3. 42 |0. 58 |0. 3364 |0. 098362573 | |3 |1. 8 |1. 2 |1. 44 |0 . 8 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 18 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 18 | |0 |0. 36 |0. 36 |0. 1296 |0. 36 | |1 |0. 44 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 12727272 | |7 |7. 04 |-0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 000227272 | |8 |8. 36 |-0. 36 |0. 1296 |0. 015502392 | |3 |4. 4 |-1. 4 |1. 96 |0. 445454545 | |0 |0. 44 |0. 44 |0. 1936 |0. 44 | |1 |0. 44 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 712727272 | |2 |0. 88 |1. 12 |1. 2544 |1. 425454545 | |0 |0. 28 |0. 28 |0. 0784 |0. 8 | |5 |4. 48 |0. 52 |0. 2704 |0. 060357142 | |4 |5. 32 |-1. 32 |1. 7424 |0. 327518797 | |4 |2. 8 |1. 2 |1. 44 |0. 514285714 | |1 |0. 28 |0. 72 |0. 1584 |1. 851428571 | |0 |0. 28 |0. 28 |0. 0784 |0. 28 | |0 |0. 56 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 56 | Table According to Profile Variable Gender Gender |High |Above Average |Average |Below Average |Low |Total | |Male |1 |1 |5 |12 |6 |25 | |Female |1 |2 |4 |11 |7 |25 | |total |2 |3 |9 |23 |14 |50 | |   |Gender |   |   |   | |1 |1 |0 |0 |0 | |1 |1 |0 |0 |0 | |1 |1. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 66666666 | |2 |1. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 166 666666 | |5 |4. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 055555555 | |4 |4. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 055555555 | |12 |11. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 02173913 | |11 |11. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 02173913 | |6 |6. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 038461538 | |7 |6. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 038461538 |X2= 0. 57 C. V. 0. 05= 9. 49 Name: __________________________________________ Course & Year: _________________ Age: __________ Gender: __________ Date: _______________ Depression Test Objective: Depression test may help you identify any possible depression symptoms that you may be experiencing and whether you should seek a diagnosis or treatment for depression from a qualified doctor or mental health professional. Direction: Examine the following statements and indicate which option best describes or applies to you. As you take the test, answer each question as honestly as possible. 1 – MOST OF THE TIME 2 – OFTEN 3 – SOMETIMES 4 – RARELY 5 – NEVER    |   |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |1 |I experience extremes in mood, mo ving from elated and hyper to deeply depressed. |   |   |   |   |   | |2 |I feel agitated or restless. |   |   |   |   |   | |3 |I feel so guilty that I can barely take it. |   |   |   |   |   | |4 |I feel like there is nothing to look forward to when I wake up in the morning. |   |   |   |   |   | |5 |I feel that I am not loved by my friends, family, and/or my romantic partner. |   |   |   |   |   | |6 |I think about death.    |   |   |   |   | |7 |I cannot make up my mind quickly when needed. |   |   |   |   |   | |8 |I only notice the sad or negative headlines. |   |   |   |   |   | |9 |I get mad at myself if I do not achieve the goals I have set out to reach. |   |   |   |   |   | |10 |I feel anxious when I go out of the house alone. |   |   |   |   |   | |11 |I keep myself up at night thinking about the things going on in my life. |   |   |   |   |   | |12 |I have recur rent thoughts about ending my life.    |   |   |   |   | |   |   |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |13 |I feel bad about myself. |   |   |   |   |   | |14 |I still find a way to blame myself even when forces beyond my control prevent me from |   |   |   |   |   | | |reaching a goal. | | | | | | |15 |I feel like I will never get over it when things go wrong in my life. |   |   |   |   |   | |16 |I believe that I will not have a happy relationship with anyone.    |   |   |   |   | |17 |I have a persistent feeling of emptiness. |   |   |   |   |   | |18 |I wake up early in the morning and cannot go back to sleep. | | | | | | |19 |I always feel tired and irritable. |   |   |   |   |   | |20 |I feel slowed down (physically or mentally). |   |   |   |   |   | |21 |I feel tired even after a good rest. |   |   |   |   |   | |22 |I tend to think that I am not smart enough when I am struggling in work or in school. |    |   |   |   |   | |23 |I always feel sad and troubled every day.    |   |   |   |   | |24 |I do not want to tell others when bad things happen to me because the last thing I want |   |   |   |   |   | | |is for them to pity me. | | | | | | |25 |I overanalyze my relationships with others, finding problems that do not really exist. |   |   |   |   |   | |26 |I feel like crying for no apparent reason. |   |   |   |   |   | |27 |I have difficulty in concentrating and remembering things to do. |   |   |   |   |   | |28 |I cannot forgive myself if I fail to achieve what I have set out to do.    |   |   |   |   | |29 |I feel that I do not deserve to be loved. |   |   |   |   |   | |30 |I feel like ending my life. |   |   |   |   |   | |31 |I cannot seem to get started on important projects or tasks I need to take care of. |   |   |   |   |   | |32 |I have been called overly sensitive. |   |   | |   |   | |33 |I act based on what others will think of me, rather than based on how I would really like|   |   |   |   |   | | |to proceed. | | | | | | |34 |I am (or I have been told that I am) unusually irritable.    |   |   |   |   | |35 |I feel physically weak. |   |   |   |   |   | |36 |I cannot take care of myself and of those who depend on me. |   |   |   |   |   | |37 |I feel that I am unlovable or unattractive. |   |   |   |   |   | |38 |I am not contented in my life. |   |   |   |   |   | |39 |I feel like I am hurting people by just being around. |   |   |   |   |   | |40 |I mess up everything I touch. |   |   |   |   |   | |41 |I cannot think as clearly as ever.    |   |   |   |   | |42 |I do not get pleasure anymore out of most (or all) of the things and activities that I |   |   |   |   |   | | |used to enjoy. | | | | | | |43 |I keep failures and disappoint ments to myself to avoid being judged by others. |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |44 |I feel worthless. |   |   |   |   |   | |45 |I am so tired that I cannot carry on with my usual activities.    |   |   |   |   | |46 |I feel that nobody listens to any of my sentiments. |   |   |   |   |   | |47 |I loose my concentration to everything I do. |   | |   |   |   | |48 |I tend to be sensitive in interactions with others, noticing even the subtlest insult or |   |   |   |   |   | | |mocking tone of voice. | | | | | | |49 |I have lost/gained weight without trying to. |   |   |   |   |   | |50 |I feel there is something seriously wrong with me. |   |   |   |   |   | Bibliography: http://www. essons4living. com/depression_test2. htm http://www. queendom. com/tests/access_page/index. htm? idRegTest=1123 http://www. findingstone. com/services/tests/depressiontest. htm Scoring: 1. – 1. 80 = High Depression 1. 81 – 2. 60 = Above Average Depression 2. 61 – 3. 40 = Average Depression 3. 41 – 4. 20 = Below Average Depression 4. 21 – 5. 00 = Low Depression ———————– Depression Level †¢ High †¢ Above Average †¢ Average †¢ Below Average †¢ Low Depression Test 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila -0. 07 0. 211660104 3. 64 – 3. 71 [pic] 25 25 -0. 07 [pic] O. V. = 0. 33 C. V. = 2. 0106 0. 33 -0. 07 [pic]