Saturday, August 31, 2019

Balance Sheet and Annual Financial Statements Essay

The directors are responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of the annual financial statements of the Company and Group, comprising the directors’ report, the statements of financial position as at June 2013, the statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for the year then ended, and the notes to the financial statements, which include a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) and the requirements of the Companies Act of South Africa. The directors are satisfied that the information contained in the annual financial statements fairly represents the financial position at year-end and the financial performance and cash flows of the Company and Group. The directors are also responsible for such internal control as the directors determine is necessary to enable the preparation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and for maintaining adequate accounting records and an effective system of risk management as well as the preparation of the supplementary schedules included in these financial statements. The directors believe that the Company and Group have adequate resources to continue trading as a going concern in the foreseeable future. The annual financial statements support the viability of the Company and the Group. The Group’s external auditors, PricewaterhouseCoopers Incorporated, audited the Company and Group annual financial statements, and their report is presented on page 5. The external auditors were given unrestricted access to all financial records and related data, including minutes of all meetings of shareholders, the board of directors and committees of the board. The directors believe that all representations made to the independent auditors during their audit are valid and appropriate. Approval of Annual Financial Statements The Company and Group annual financial statements of Shoprite Holdings Ltd, as identified in the first paragraph, were approved by the Board of directors on 19 August 2013 and signed on its behalf by: CH Wiese Chairman JW Basson Chief Executive Officer Certificate of the Company Secretary In terms of section 88(2)(e) of the Companies Act no 71 of 2008 (as amended) I, PG du Preez, in my capacity as Company Secretary, confirm that for the year ended 30 June 2013, the Company has lodged with the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission, all such returns as are required of a public company in terms of the Companies Act and that all such returns and notices are true, correct and up to date. PG du Preez Company Secretary 19 August 2013 Directors’ Report Shoprite Holdings Ltd and its Subsidiaries 2 NATURE OF BUSINESS Shoprite Holdings Limited (â€Å"Shoprite Holdings†) is an investment holding company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange Limited (â€Å"JSE†) in the â€Å"food retailers & wholesalers† sector. Secondary listings are also maintained on the Namibian and Zambian Stock Exchanges. supermarket premises or developing new shopping centres to accommodate one of the Group’s supermarket formats. New retail developments and the redevelopment of existing properties are supervised through every stage of the planning-, design- and construction process. SHOPRITE INVESTMENTS LTD: SHOPRITE HOLDINGS COMPRISES OF THE FOLLOWING MAIN SUBSIDIARIES: As a wholly owned subsidiary of Shoprite Holdings, Shoprite Investments conducts the Group’s treasury function and financing of credit sales to third parties. SHOPRITE CHECKERS (PTY) LTD: Supermarkets: Serves a broad customer base through our Shoprite, Checkers, Checkers Hyper and Usave store formats. Supply Chain Management: Supplies the Group’s outlets in South Africa and 16 Non-RSA countries. The Group prides itself in running a state-ofthe-art distribution operation and became the first South African retailer to receive the ISO 9002 accreditation for import and export handling. Fast Foods: The Hungry Lion chain now boasts modern, well-designed stores with an inescapable focus on fried chicken and operates outlets within South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Franchise: The OK Franchise Division’s stores offer a wide range of perishable and non-perishable food items and liquor under the OK, Friendly Grocer, 7-Eleven, Megasave en Sentra brands. Freshmark: Freshmark is the Group’s fruit and vegetable procurement and distribution arm and supplies fresh produce to the Group’s retail outlets. As one of the largest buyers of fresh produce in South Africa, Freshmark also imports fruit and vegetables to ensure a wide variety and continuity of traditionally seasonal fresh produce. Liquor Stores: Trading under the Shoprite and Checkers LiquorShop brands respectively, the liquor shops have extended the Group’s offering by providing a selection of wines, beers and a wide range of premium spirits to its customers. Meat Markets: The Group’s meat market division is the largest retailer of fresh meat on the African continent. Customers are served through in-store butcheries that employ qualified butchers and technicians. Money Markets: Money Markets offer a comprehensive range of financial services and products to the Group’s customers through dedicated in-store service counters. Furniture: The Furniture division offers furniture, electrical appliances and home entertainment products to customers for cash or credit through its OK Furniture, OK Power Express and House & Home outlets in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland, Lesotho, Zambia, Mozambique and Angola. Pharmacies and wholesale distribution: MediRite’s in-store pharmacies offer consumers an easy access to affordable healthcare and healthcare professionals. These in-store dispensaries currently operate throughout South Africa and also in Angola and Swaziland. The Group’s pharmaceutical wholesaler, Transpharm, sells and distributes a wide range of pharmaceutical products and surgical equipment to hospitals and clinics, dispensing doctors, veterinary surgeons and private and corporate pharmacies. Properties: This division is tasked with the responsibility of expanding the supermarket portfolio through the identification and leasing of new SHOPRITE HOLDINGS LTD ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2013 COMPUTICKET (PTY) LTD: As a premier ticketing solution provider and one of the most recognised brand names, Computicket offers theatre, concert, festival, sport and cinema tickets along with bus tickets and gift vouchers through a network of outlets located across South Africa and Namibia, a call centre as well as the Computicket website. Computicket also offers travel packages. SHOPRITE INTERNATIONAL LTD: Incorporated in the Republic of Mauritius, Shoprite International is the holding company for the majority of the Group’s non-South African retail and property investments. SHOPRITE INSURANCE COMPANY LTD: Provides first and third party short-term insurance to the Group and its customers. OTHER GROUP SUBSIDIARIES: The interests of Shoprite Holdings in other subsidiaries are set out on page  69 of the Annual Financial Statements. FINANCIAL REVIEW The Group’s headline earnings per share amounts to 675,4 cents for the year (2012: 607,0 cents). Details of the profit of Shoprite Holdings and its subsidiaries are contained in the statement of comprehensive income on page 7 with reference to the operating segment information on page 23. The financial position of Shoprite Holdings and its subsidiaries are recorded in the statement of financial position on page 6. Further details are furnished in the notes to the annual financial statements on page 10 to 68. The Group’s net asset value per share as at 30 June 2013 was 2  837 cents (2012: 2  382 cents). DISTRIBUTION TO SHAREHOLDERS PREFERENCE DIVIDENDS Details are reflected in note 27 to the Group’s Annual Financial Statements. ORDINARY DIVIDENDS An interim cash dividend (no. 128) of 123 cents per share was paid on 18  March 2013. A final dividend (no. 129) of 215 cents per share, is payable on 16 September 2013, bringing the total dividend for the year to 338 cents (2012: 303 cents) per ordinary share. 3 SHARE CAPITAL The authorised share capital of Shoprite Holdings remained unchanged at 650 000 000 (six hundred and fifty million) ordinary shares of 113,4 cents (one hundred and thirteen comma four cents) each. There was no movement in the number of issued Shoprite Holdings ordinary shares which remained at 570 579 460 shares of 113,4 cents each. On 28 June 2012, shareholders approved the issue of an additional 13  803  405 non-convertible, non-participating, no par value deferred shares in the share capital of Shoprite Holdings to Thibault Square Financial Services (Pty) Ltd pursuant to the issue of 27  100  000 ordinary shares during the previous reporting period. These deferred shares were however only issued on 25 July 2012. As at 30 June 2013, 35 436 472 (6,2%) ordinary shares were held as treasury shares by a wholly owned subsidiary of Shoprite Holdings. GOING CONCERN The annual financial statements of the Group were prepared on a going concern basis. The Board has performed a formal review of the Group’s results and its ability to continue trading as a going concern in the foreseeable future. The directors of Shoprite Holdings confirm that they are satisfied that the Group has adequate resources to continue in business for the foreseeable future. During the reporting period the following special resolutions were passed by main Group subsidiaries: SHOPRITE CHECKERS (PTY) LTD – Special resolution number 1: Approval of new Memorandum of Incorporation; and – Special resolution number 2: Financial Assistance to Subsidiaries, Related and inter-related entities. SHOPRITE INVESTMENTS LTD – Special resolution number 1: Approval of new Memorandum of Incorporation. COMPUTICKET (PTY) LTD – Special resolution number 1: Approval of new Memorandum of Incorporation. SHOPRITE INTERNATIONAL LTD Special resolution number 1: Approval of new Constitution. SHOPRITE INSURANCE COMPANY LTD – Special resolution number 1: Approval of new Memorandum of Incorporation. BORROWINGS DIRECTORS AND SECRETARY Shoprite Holdings has unlimited borrowing powers in terms of its Memorandum of Incorporation. The Group’s overall level of debt increased from R4  035 million to R4  151 million during the financial year under review. The directors’ names and details are furnished on pages 8 and 9 and the company secretary’s name, business and postal address on page 67 of the Integrated Report. In terms of the Memorandum of Incorporation of Shoprite Holdings (â€Å"the MOI†), no less than one third of the non-executive directors shall retire by rotation at each Annual General Meeting. Dr CH Wiese, Messrs EC Kieswetter, JA Louw and JF Malherbe retire as directors, in terms of paragraph 33. 5. 1 of the MOI of the Company, at the Annual General Meeting. Dr CH Wiese, Messrs EC Kieswetter and JA  Louw have offered themselves for re-election as directors of Shoprite Holdings. The board supports the re-election of these directors. SPECIAL RESOLUTIONS At the Annual General Meeting of Shoprite Holdings held on 29 October 2012, shareholders approved the following special resolutions: – Special resolution number 1: Remuneration payable to Non-Executive Directors; – Special resolution number 2: Financial Assistance to Subsidiaries, Related and inter-related entities; – Special resolution number 3: Financial Assistance for Subscription of Securities; – Special resolution number 4: General Approval to repurchase shares; and – Special resolution number 5: Approval of new Memorandum of Incorporation as proposed by the Board. Directors’ Report (continued) The company’s directors are responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these consolidated and separate financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards and the requirements of the Companies Act of South Africa, and for such internal control as the directors determine is necessary to enable the preparation of consolidated and separate financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error. AUDITOR’S RESPONSIBILITY Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated and separate financial statements based on our audit. We conducted our audit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing. Those standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated and separate financial statements are free from material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditor’s judgement, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity’s preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. OPINION In our opinion, the consolidated and separate financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated and separate financial position of Shoprite Holdings Limited as at 30 June 2013, and its consolidated and separate financial performance and its consolidated and separate cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards and the requirements of the Companies Act of South Africa. OTHER REPORTS REQUIRED BY THE COMPANIES ACT As part of our audit of the consolidated and separate financial statements for the year ended 30 June 2013, we have read the Directors’ Report, the Audit Committee’s Report and the Company Secretary’s Certificate for the purpose of identifying whether there are material inconsistencies between these reports and the audited consolidated and separate financial statements. These reports are the responsibility of the respective preparers. Based on reading these reports we have not identified material inconsistencies between these reports and the audited consolidated and separate financial statements. The  most significant assumptions and estimates used in applying the Group’s accounting policies relate to the following: a) Impairment of assets: The Group performs a review of loss-making stores and considers the need for the impairment of assets under these circumstances. This determination requires significant judgment. The Group evaluates amongst other things, the duration and extent of the losses, the near-term business outlook for the store, and the possible redeployment of the assets between stores. Refer to notes 3, 9 and 26. Useful lives of assets: In determining the depreciation and amortisation charge for property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, management applies judgment in estimating the useful lives and residual values of these different asset classes. Refer to notes 3, 9 and 21. c) Income taxes: The Group is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the worldwide accrual for income taxes. The Group recognises liabilities for anticipated uncertain income tax positions based on estimates of potential additional taxes due. With regards to deferred income tax assets for unutilised income tax losses, judgment is also required to whether sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these losses can be utilised. Refer to notes 1. 11 and 28. d) Allowances for doubtful debts: Trade receivables include instalment sale debtors and franchise debtors for which allowances for impairment are made in accordance with the accounting policy in note 1. 15. These calculations involve the discounting of projected future cash flows and require the use of estimates. Details regarding the allowances are set out in note 12. e) Employee benefit accruals and provisions: Various assumptions are applied in determining the valuations of post-retirement medical benefits, share based payment accruals and long term employee benefits as set out in notes 1. 20, 1. 22, 14, 17 and 35. Estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying value of assets and liabilities in a subsequent year relate to the following: income taxes; allowances for doubtful debts and employee benefit allowances. All estimates and underlying assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that management believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis of judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and any affected future periods. Use of adjusted measures The measures listed below are presented as management believes it to be relevant to the understanding of the Group’s financial performance. These measures are used for internal performance analysis and provide additional useful information on underlying trends to equity holders. These measures are not defined terms under IFRS and may therefore not be comparable with similarly titled measures reported by other entities. It is not intended to be a substitute for, or superior to, measures as required by IFRS. a) Trading profit on the face of the statement of comprehensive income, being the Group’s operating results excluding foreign exchange rate differences and income or expenditure of a capital nature. b) Income or expenditure of a capital nature on the face of the statement of comprehensive income, being all re-measurements excluded from the calculation of headline earnings per share in accordance with the guidance contained in SAICA Circular 3/2012: Headline Earnings. The principal items that will be included under this measure are: gains and losses on disposal and scrapping of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and assets held for sale; impairments or reversal of impairments; any non-trading items such as gains and losses on disposal of investments, operations and subsidiaries. c) Interest received on the face of the statement of comprehensive income, being only interest received on call and operating bank account balances. Subsidiaries Subsidiaries are entities (including special purpose entities) which are, directly or indirectly, controlled by the Group. Control is established where the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered when assessing whether the Group controls another.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Mao Zedong: Man, Not God

â€Å"Mao Zedong: Man, not God† by Quan Yanchi was first published in 1992, book is translated to English from Chinese by Wang Wenjiong and edited by Gale Hadfield. The book is based on the recollections of Li Yinqiao, Mao's bodyguard for many years. Highlighting the book are photographs of Mao with his relatives and Li, published for the first time. This book can help anyone who is new to China or know just a little about this country to get more familiar with who Mao for Chinese is. They love him so much, and the main aim of author of the book is to show to reader hidden situations of his life.The book is divided into 20 chapters by their theme. It ranges from Mao's relationship with different people to things that made him cry. Author was worried that not all of his questions will be answered by Li, despite Li is his friend. He thought some questions may embarrass Li, as they were about Mao's likes and dislikes, his fears. But to his fortune Li did his best trying to rememb er everything in details. Mao is well-known around the world as the greatest man China produced in this century. The author supports this impression and also tries to show that Mao was not like a robot,but ordinary human feelings are not alien to him.He had some habits which characterize him as a person who doesn't really like changes. As he choose Li to be his bodyguard's commander, they spent about 15 years together and after Li left Mao didn't have any new bodyguard commander. There are lots of situations while Mao afield. During the war he shows himself as a good commander and great strategist. He is very principled, sometimes it almost costed him a life. There were only few occasions when he refused his words and changed the order of things. But in some cases we should have thanked Li that Mao stayed alive.He was so dogged, he didn't worry about his own safe, he was just following his desire or whim like as he said so he would do so no matter how it would finish. For me persona lly was very interesting chapter about things that make Mao cry. I didn't even expect that such a thing as Beijing Opera could make him cry so much. One of his favorite plays was â€Å"The Story of the White Snake†. This tragic story never failed to move Mao to tears. This episode shows Mao not as Chairman or army leader,but more humane, as a small vulnerable child which starts to cry from emotions when he sees something perfect in its kind.Tragedy took Mao inside the play, he was losing connection to the real world, he became a part of play, he didn't care about other people's opinion. Another episode is also very emotional. Mao used to have one bodyguard from each province, so about twice a year he was sending them back home for family reunion, but also they had to bring Mao information about what was going on in the country, especially in distant parts. He didn't want them to be spy or guerrilla, he wanted to know the situation. He was not indifferent to destiny of people in China.Author keeps very detailed, he describes everything so vivid that reader gets an impression that he is sitting next to Mao, can hear his breathe, and feel the same disgust when Mao throws away a butt. Sometimes it can make you bored, but at all I find it necessary. Without all this details the text would be just retelling of history, only dry facts and would make you asleep within a minute. As the text is divided into chapters, Quan Yanchi starts each chapter with statement and after gives an example which supports the statement given in the beginning.As there can be some confirmations he goes from one to another, doesn't mix them up, so even if you stop reading for sometime and then come back to book you will easily get back to the event described. Book leaves its sign on you, it is impossible that you will not change your opinion about Mao. He presented from very different point of view than we, foreigners, used to think about him. Mao is God for Chinese, but he totally d eserve it. During his life he did lots of good to China and now its time for China pay him back.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The Difference Between the High School System and Graduate Research Paper

The Difference Between the High School System and Graduate Institutions - Research Paper Example One of the similarities of the different college-level paths is that each enhances the communication ability of the students in the level of advancement. However, the higher the level, the more advanced the communication. Students from graduate level have better communication compared to the other levels considering that it is the highest of all, therefore, the environment ensuring that individuals advance in their written and oral communication mechanics and techniques (Kis and Park, 2012). Additionally, the college and graduate levels usually offer specialized education system in which students in such institutions study in various fields and areas of specialization, making them more informed on the various study topics in which the students are specialized (Kis and Park, 2012). In the case of high school; however, students study many subject areas with little or no specialization in a particular field. The approach of education in such a perspective limits the aspect of identifyin g the strengths and weaknesses of a student in a particular field of study (McCauley, 2007). Advanced placement institutions usually offer a similar curriculum to that of the high school, only that the exemplary students get an opportunity to take examinations approved by the board. Such an aspect enhances the student’s understanding of the different subject areas examined. Despite being affiliated to the high school curriculum, Advanced Placement colleges offer specialized examinations to its students, bringing about an aspect of specialization as observed in the case of colleges and graduate institutions.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Project Managent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Project Managent - Essay Example (Wordnet, 2008) Business Process Reengineering can be defined as a fundamental rethinking and redesign of business processes like marketing department, processing department, finance department and human resource department etc. so that the company can achieve improvements in cost, quality, speed and service of an organization (Wordnet, 2008). Business Process Reengineering is mostly called reengineering and does not mean just the automation or downsizing or even outsourcing. The organization has to keep one thing mind is that even tough the payback of reengineering is considered to be high, the risk of failure along with disruption level of the organization's environment increases. When BPR project is implemented within the organization the management has to remember one thing that it is not an easy task when implementing extreme changes within the business processes of the organization so that the efficiency and the effectiveness would increase. For example there are some organizations, which have gained impressive profits after conducting business process engineering but then again there are some organizations which have failed to achieve their objectives and targets or the improvement these companies sought to improve their business processes. With the help of BPR some employees or specialists from different departments come together to work as a team on product development process. WHY REENGINEERING / SELECTING BPR The organization needs to reengineer so that it can again focus on three things i.e. customers, competition and change. As we know that customers have changing needs and the company has to keep up with that is why reengineering is need. When it comes to competition the company has local as well as global competition. And to have a competitive advantage over its competitor the company has to conduct reengineering. And last but not least change, change would include technology and customer needs. With the help of business process reengineering with in an organization it changes the business processes, can focus on its end-users or customers or clients of the company's product. BPR helps with improving with cost, quality, speed and service of the company. It also introduces new and innovated products and services for the company's customers. And it also improves the efficiency and the effectiveness of the company's business processes. This process is flexible and rich in functionality and it is also process oriented. PEOPLE AFFECTED DUE TO BPR IN AN ORGANIZATION People who will mostly be affected by the business process reengineering would be the employees of the company. Because of BPR implementation with in the company it can damage the trust and the relationship b/w the employee and the employer. The employee would be thinking that due to BPR the employer would downsize and the employees would lose their jobs. Then another conflict can arise between the client of the BPR and the developers, i.e. whatever the client expects compared to what the correct action is. The companies who are planning to implement or do BPR should always make sure that it is sensitive ethically and socially responsible. People who would also be affected by the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Timeline of Historical growth in Terms of Technological Advances Essay

Timeline of Historical growth in Terms of Technological Advances - Essay Example Based on this finding, they recommended the use of MRI technology in identifying chemical compounds ( Damadian believed MRI technology to be a means of manipulating genetic characteristics of a living being. Nevertheless, empirical research is ongoing in order to validate this assumption ( Clinical application of MRI initiated in US (, which revolutionized the world of medicine through providing exclusive integrated knowledge of human physiology, thus assisting physicians in identifying the interdependencies of various human organs with each other. A famous medical equipment company purchased the MRI machine in order to initialize its mass production (Wehrum, 2011). Along with this a diagnostic method for Parkinson’s disease was perfected through integration of MRI (Seibyl, et al., 1997). A sub-dermal scanner through integration of CT and MRI technology was developed at Siemens (Wehrum, 2011), which offered detailed understanding of the interdependencies of various functions in human body. In this modern era of technology, importance of MRI is increasing as a treatment for skin diseases because conventional methods of treatment are reported to be causing significant epidermal damage. On the other hand, MRI technology is believed to be much more effective than traditional treatments. However, MRI also has some consequences for heart patients, because it influences their heart rate in a negative fashion, through causing their heartbeat’s rhythm to collapse. As a result, MRI is not recommended for cardiac patients except in extreme cases. This paper focused on analyzing the history of MRI scanning system in medical science. MRI blessed medicine with the strength to scrutinize internal condition of humans, which was considered absurd in the past. However, at that time, physicians resorted to external

Monday, August 26, 2019

Telomeres and Tumors Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Telomeres and Tumors - Research Paper Example At one time, the DNA at the ends of chromosomes seemed to be static. Yet in most organisms that have been studied, the tips, called telomeres, are actually ever changing; they shorten and lengthen repeatedly† (Glieder and Blackburn). Since the past fifteen years, there have been remarkable findings, with respect to this change. Getting to the specifics, it has led to the discovery of theastonishing enzyme, telomerase that acts on telomeres and is considered a pre requisite for the maintenance of cancer in human being. Geneticists, Barbara McClintock, of University of Missouri at Columbia, and Hermann J. Muller, from the University of Edinburgh, are credited with having done extensive work on the intricate subjects of telomeres and telomerase. These scientists workedunconnectedly and with dissimilar organisms, however both of them realized that chromosomes were stabilized by a special component on their ends. â€Å"Muller coined the term telomere, from the Greek for end (telos) and part (meros). McClintock noted that without these end caps, chromosomes stick to one another, undergo structural changes and misbehave in other ways. These activities threaten the survival and faithful replication of chromosomes and, consequently, of the cells housing them.† (Glieder and Blackburn). ... â€Å"The observed heterogeneity led Blackburn, who had moved to the University of California at Berkeley, Jack W. Szostak of Harvard University and Janis Shampay of Berkeley to propose a new solution to what has been called the end-replication problem† (Glieder and Blackburn). â€Å"In 1972 James D. Watson, working at both Harvard and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, noted that DNA polymerases, the enzymes that replicate DNA, could not copy linear chromosomes all the way to the tip. Hence, the replication machinery had to leave a small region at the end (a piece of the telomere) un-copied.† (Glieder and Blackburn). Theoretically, if the cells were unable to reimburse for this fluke, chromosomes would decrease in their respective lengths, with each level of mitosis. The corrosion henceforth eradicating the telomeres and perilous genes in some group of the cells. The variations in the length of telomere, for the scientists, were an indicator that cells uphold telomeres at a constant size, or at least they try to. The telomeres decrease in length during mitosis, but their length also increases as freshly formed subunits attach themselves to them. â€Å"The researchers suspected that the source of these additional repeats was some undiscovered enzyme capable of a trick that standard DNA polymerases could not perform.† (Glieder and Blackburn). â€Å"When cells replicate their chromosomes, which consist of two strands of DNA twisted around each other, they begin by separating the double helix. The polymerases use each of these parentstrands as a template for constructing a new partner. The special enzyme the workers envisioned would be able to build extensions to single strands of DNA from scratch, without benefit of an existing DNA template.† (Glieder

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Visual analyzation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Visual analyzation - Research Paper Example Majority of their statues represent aged look. This sculpted head created in marble gives all the minor and major details of an elderly matured face. The facial expression are crafted skillfully in marble which gives the complete details of the face representing sheer determination, experience and power. Romans highly admired such characteristics. The face has the perfect folds and bulges which gives the head a very realistic view. Portrait of Augustus is the sculpture of Octavian Caesar who became the first Roman Emperor in 44 BC. He was the nephew of Julius Caesar and some historians mentioned him as his adopted son too. During 27 BC, he was awarded as the title of â€Å"Augustus† by the Senate. Augustus ruled over the Roman Empire for 41 years. He was known for establishing peace, tranquility and prosperity within his domain. The original sculpture is in bronze, however; the marble copy is present in Vatican Museum located in Rome. The sculpture represents Augustus addressing the troops with his hand held out. The inclusion of Cupid on the side of the sculpture represents the divine descent of Augustus (Source: The original sculpture is painted in color. The bodily portrait of Augustus highlights deeply his masculine features that represent his masculinity, authority, grace and experience which is prominent from his facial features. Th e purpose of the statue was to promote the political propaganda and to highlight the authority and control Augustus held during his times. He is depicted like god of war wearing the military clothes. The portrait of Constantine was created in 330 CE. It is about 30 feet in height. However, the head of Constantine is 8 feet high. The entire body of the portrait was made up of less precious material but the head, hands and feet are made of fine marble. The statue was at first

Real Estate Investment Analysis (data provided) Case Study

Real Estate Investment Analysis (data provided) - Case Study Example Also the rate at of absorption is very high. Meaning if a new investor comes into the market, more tenants are likely to shift to the new property. Finally, most of the occupants are employed, thus paying rent won’t be an issue. Discounted cash flow (DCF) is used in valuing projects, assets or investments by taking into account the time value of money. The concept of time value for money states that a shilling today is worth than a shilling tomorrow. As a result investors would rather get cash now rather than wait. The market is dynamic and factors such as inflation are unpredictable. The appropriate rate of discounting is known. This is not the case as the rate can be determined using methods such as Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Secondly, the cash flow forecast was created based on the assumptions made. In the cash flow, projected income is subtracted from expenditure and taxes. The cash flow only considers cash. Depreciation and interest expense is non-cash item thus excluded from the cash flow. Income tax is charged against the taxable income. Therefore, in computing income tax, depreciation and interest were subtracted from the NOI to get the taxable income. Interest is computed using the amortization schedule as 8% on the beginning balance of loan in each year. NPV is an appraisal method that calculates returns on investments by discounting future cash flows and deducting them from the initial cost of the investment (Brigham & Houston 2009, p 338). It is a modern method in capital budgeting and it takes into account the time value for money. It also uses cash flows and not profits in assessing the viability of an investment. Cash flows are forecasted first, initial cost of investment determined and a required rate of return is given. The rate of return is the return that investors expect from their investments. The initial capital outlay is based on the value of assets. The value is 1.5M. This

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Learning New Things in Life - Process Analysis Essay

Learning New Things in Life - Process Analysis - Essay Example In effect, this chapter is instrumental in highlighting the importance of process analysis and its impact on the quality of a writer’s work. It is instructive to note that authors write in order to direct or inform their readers about various phenomena. This chapter is apt since it provides a guide on how writers can use process analysis in order to attain their objectives while writing. In effect, this makes the essay unique in that it provides the problem and informs while also directing the reader on the approaches that the reader should use in order to solve the highlighted problem. In order to achieve its uniqueness, a process analysis essay engages in a systematic approach in order to achieve the objectives of the writer while writing the essay.  In this case, a human being requires  satisfying their curiosity and learning about the processes that constitute the world. To do this, it is crucial for individuals to engage in a technique that provided the steps and the sequences involved in learning, which is known as process analysis. In effect, this chapter is instrumental in highlighting the importance of process analysis and its impact on the quality of a writer’s work. It is instructive to note that authors write in order to direct or inform their readers about various phenomena.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Has Islam Played a Role In the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation Essay

Has Islam Played a Role In the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation - Essay Example pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area† (WHO 2013). Traditional circumcisioners who have no medical knowledge mostly perform this procedure and the instruments used for the circumcision include unsterilized knives, razors, scalpels, and pieces of broken glass among many other tools. This paper would argue that the practice of FGM is mainly a product of social, cultural, physical and psychological constructs, rather than a religious obligation or Islamic perspective. Religious Claims Religion is considered as one of the major elements in keeping Female Genital Mutilation practices alive. Islam, as a widespread religion, is said to be the leader for promoting this practice. The proponents believe that it helps in maintaining the shariah of abstaining from non-Islamic practices by women. Women in Islam are to abide by the shariah rules on interactions, sexual relationships and contact with male counterparts. The proponents believe that having the F emale Genital Mutilation done, female will not consent to have such relationships with men and will be less likely to commit a sin in Islamic law. They have a strong opinion on confining women as they believe is guided by Islamic teachings. However, research shows that Muslims are led by the rules prescribed in the Holy book Quran (Koran). Research shows that Quran (Koran) does not specify the practice for females but it, rather, is identified a healthy practice for male counterparts of Muslim society. The well-known and reverend Scholar of Islam, Ghazali further elaborates on the topic with the statement that â€Å"Circumcision is Sunna for men and only makruma for girls†. Sunnah represent the practices of Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which should be followed, whereas, makruma is not a legitimate principle or command to be followed by Muslims. The absence of principles regarding this practice in Quran (Koran) is a further confirmation of this mythical ideology being associat ed with religion. The proponents reveal that â€Å"Female scission is an Islamic practice mentioned in the tradition of the Prophet†, however the tradition never was meant for females but rather was carried out for the males only. Relating and applying these rules on women was entirely an overwhelmingly extremist opinion on practicing Islamic laws. Sociological Claims Since the claims on Islamic or religious viability of the concepts are refuted, one may clearly identify social concerns and traditions to be the main cause of such practices prevalent in any society. Indeed, these practices provide a rather strong indication of a girl being ready to move from one phase of life to the other. The practice is performed on girls aged between 12 and 14. Usually it is performed on girls before their menstrual cycle begins and they marry. The practice is a social activity to identify the female’s status and making them move onto the next stage of their lives. The case of Badawi is a self-explanatory evidence of violation of human rights and women in specific. She was locked

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Isolationist Policy In The United States (1920’S And 1930’S) Essay Example for Free

Isolationist Policy In The United States (1920’S And 1930’S) Essay Isolationism pertains to the foreign policy that involves two major actions, non-intervention with regards to military actions and protection of economic activities. In the area of non-interventionism, the political leaders are observed to circumvent any coalitions with other countries as well as any participation in warfare and other forms of self-defense activities related to territories. In the area of protectionism, legal barriers are erected in order to regulate any exchanges related to trade and sharing of cultural information with individuals representing other states. The concept of isolationism is often mistaken as a non-interventionist way of thinking or philosophy and international policy associated with liberty, which entails unrestricted trading and traveling between individuals from any part of the world. It is thus best to employ the term libertarian isolationist as the policy of non-intervention or not participating with any activities or not getting associated with any political relations with a foreign country yet still retaining the capability of participating in free trade. The doctrine of non-participation of the United States through the refusal of entering into any form of alliance, agreement or commitment with a foreign country has been observed during different decades. Such isolationist policy is also coupled to the attempts of the United States to instill a sense of self-reliance based on a stable economy by dedicating efforts of the advancement of the country, in both routes of diplomacy and economics, while maintaining a condition of peace by keeping away from any associations with other countries and responsibilities. It is understood that developed countries generally engage in trade relations with other countries in order to expand its labor force as well as raise their standard of living based on the rise of the country’s economy. However, the United States is known to follow a protectionist policy which entails isolation from any form of engagement with trade relations with other countries. The leaders of the United States believe that such policy is beneficial to the United States, while economists express the opposite, that such policy is detrimental. Other critics have expressed that since the United States is recognized as the biggest consumer of the world and carries it own rich natural resources, it can identity specific conditions that should be applied to products and services that are brought into the country. This condition is the opposite of the free trade policy, which allows any country to perform any particular action that is recognized to be their expertise, and in turn benefit from the trading of their products. The adoption of the isolationist policy is the result of the conditions of a particular country, such as war, crises and uprisings that may originate from other countries. The isolationist policy adopted by the United States was mainly due to the effects of World War I, the Great Depression and the significant influx of immigrants. The decades of the 1920’s and the 1930’s were characterized by the isolationist conditions in the United States, wherein there was social seclusion from any form of engagement with countries around the world. The coined attitude, known as the Red Scare, was based on the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. In this setting, Americans gave more focus into instilling tranquility in their homes, more than providing efforts in achieving and instilling peace in other countries. It has been described that the United States adopted the isolationist policy because the country was already exhausted by global issues at that time. With this in mind, the political leaders of the United States were very anxious in staying away from issues and associated effects of war. This can be observed in the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which stated that war was outlawed as a tool for international policy. In a public address given by Warren G. Harding in the 1920’s, it was expressed that a supergovernment is the least of the United States’ dream and in turn, attention should be given to national issues instead. It was also stated that adopting the isolationist policy is not selfish, but is actually a form of sanctity. The result of the Treaty of Versailles is another example of the adoption of the isolationist policy by the United States in the 1920’s and 1930’s. In this case, the U. S. Senate did not agree to ratify the Treaty which states that the United States would engage in the League of Nations. The United States’ refusal to approve this Treaty showed the contempt of the U. S. over concepts of idealism at the international level, because the United States feels that engaging in this Treaty would eventually lead the country to war. The United States then was actively expressing the war is a contagious disease which can spread around the world at a very fast pace. With this stand, the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937 were created, which prevents the re-emergence of ties between the United States and any war actions or policies (Doenecke, 1982). The many faces of isolationism are clearly shown during the 1920’s and the 1930’s. During these decades, the political and social views and American policy were turned towards isolationism, such as the increasing fear of communism, exhaustion from the idea of war, and the anti-radical hysteria. In the next decades such as the 1950’s, these same socialist isolationist views were also evident, but this time the political policy was turned towards and internationalist point of view. Isolationism, however radical in concept, resulted from the circumstances in which it was derived from. Reference Doenecke JD (1982): American Isolationism, 1939-1941. Journal of Libertarian Studies, Summer/Fall 6(3):201-216.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Dendrophthoe Petandra L. Miq.s Progesterone-Like Effect

Dendrophthoe Petandra L. Miq.s Progesterone-Like Effect ABSTRACT The in-vivo study on healthy adult female rat were known that extract methanol of Dendrophthoe Petandra L. Miq by intramuscular injection (w/v) at dose 100 mg/kg body weight for four days (s.d.d.) can be produce progesterone hormone two times more than usual levels. That phenomenon apparently indicates that plant as an Indonesia namely Benalu duku were probably consist of steroid with carbon bonding substances at number 1st to 21st namely pregnane derivate. These research aims to determined specificity active substances of methanol crude extract Benalu duku leaves with pharmacodynamics effect like progesterone hormone. Pulverized Benalu duku leaves at 400g was extracted with 2 L methanol pro analysis grade by shaker maceration method at 200C during the 72 hours. Semi solid crude extract were drying by vacuum dried apparatus and UV exposure at 15 minutes and analysis by FT-IR and LC ESI MS. Research result obtained that active substances with main chemical structure of pregnane deriva te were progesterone at about 30%, medroxy progesterone acetate at about 66%, megestrol acetate at about 3% and 1% dydrogesterone. Key words: Benalu duku, pregnane derivate, anabolic steroid, leaves extract FT-IR, Methanolic leaves extract LC-ESI MS. Introduction Dendrophtoe Petandra L Miq (Benalu duku) as a parasites plant growing on Lancium demesticum were known have a several essential active substances and useful for treated proliferation cell (NURAINI et al., 2000, ROOSTANTIA et al., 2000 and RATNA et al., 2007). Some researcher reported that plants have a beneficially active substance like alkaloid, flavonoid, polyphenol, terpenoid and free steroid (ARIFA et al., 2009). New research report explained that crude methanolic extract of Benalu duku leaves can be increasing progesterone hormone two times more than usual levels, but giving FSH levels on female adult rat (BAMBANG, LAZUARDI, 2014). The last research report indicate that plants have a several substances with characterize as a progesterone like effect. Characterization progesterone like effect was known have a specific chemical main structure namely pregnane derivate with consist of carbon at 1st to 21st at their double bonded chain structure or (8S,9S,10S,13R,14S,17S)-17-ethyl- 10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12, 14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H- cyclopenta [a] phenanthrene. Identically of their main structure of pregnane derivate were known as an anabolic hormone and usefully for treatment prostate cancer in adult man (RANDOX LABORATORY LTD, 2013). Pregnane derivate were known have some specific anabolic steroid structure i.e cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, medroxy progesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, 17- ÃŽ ±- hydroxyl progesterone acetate, dydrogesterone. Other herbal medicine with anabolic steroid action was found at Mexico namely Codices plant. That plant was similar with Benalu duku as a parasites plant growing at subtropics seasons (LERNER, ARNWINE, 2002). With analog to Codices plant in Mexico, might be benalu duku leaves after extracted by methanol were containing specific anabolic steroid. By background research at above, will be determined progesterone like effect substance like progesterone, medroxy progesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, dydrogesterone from base on overview of identic molecule ion of LC-ESI MS and function compound of FT-IR. Materials and methods Benalu duku leaves were obtained from Muara Enim region of west Sumatera-Indonesia and identification as a Dendrophthoe Petandra L. Miq at Botany Research Institute at Tangerang – Jakarta Indonesia as described by BAMBANG, LAZUARDI (2014). Reference substance of progesterone was obtained from Sigma-aldrich product 46665 batch SEBA XV. Reference substance of medroxy progesterone acetate was obtained from Harsen pharmaceutical Industry Jakarta – Indonesia at pharmaceutics grade. Megestrol acetate reference material was obtained from Sigma Aldrich at product 46420 batch SZB9173XV. Dydrogesterone reference material was used from European Directorate for quality medicines and health care, France by catalog code Y0001004. A 400 gram of pulverize benalu duku leaves were extracted on 2 L of methanol pro analysis on to the 1 L separated flask during the 72 hours (movement shaker maceration method at 200C). The semi-solid of crude extract were dried on vacum drying and exposure to uv light (15 minutes) for kept contaminate from the mold and some bacteria. Some amount of semi-solid crude extract benalu duku leaves was determined specific molecule structure compound by FT –IR PerkinElmer Frontier 89485 and LC-ESI MS Accela TSQ Quantum Acess Thermo. The semi-solid crude extract methanol of benalu duku leaves was determined to molecule function of progesterone like effect substances at 400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 . Performance control of LC-ESI MS were adjusted as follows; column hypersil Gold 0.2  µm length 10 cm gradient method with mobile phase at bottle A 0.1% in Aqua bidest and bottle B 0,1% formic acid in acetonitrile pro HPLC. The gradient was perform at 35% to70% of B in 20 minute at 254 nm UV detector. Automatic sucking and injection capacity was adjusted at 10  µl, flushing capacity 400  µl with velocity at 100 µl.second-1, velocity injector 8  µl.second-1, height of suction apparatus at about 2 ml capacity autosample vial at 1.2 ml. Temperature column was adjusted at 220C at maximum pressure pump 1250 PSI and stabile in 10 BAR (THERMO ELECTRON CORPORATION, 2007). Results Analysis Spectrum infra-red of crude extract methanol Benalu duku leaves obtained that stretching aromatic compound specific overtone was presented at 1650 to 2000 cm-1. Especial in 1550 cm-1 to 1600 cm-1 was appeared stretching aromatic compound (1,s). In 1450 cm-1 to 1500 cm-1 was appeared s orbital of stretching aromatic compounds. At finger print area wavelength number of 600 cm-1 to 900 cm-1 and 1000 cm-1 to 1300 cm-1 were indicate of flexible carbon atom and hydrogen outside of area (k orbital) and inside of area (l orbital). To compare similarities of infra-red spectrum between reference material vs., crude extract methanol of Benalu duku leaves at high intensity (%T) indicated that wavelength number of 1400 cm-1 to 1050 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 to 1660 cm-1 were identic both of them. Even at low intensity (%T) on the finger print area 750 cm-1 to 1000 cm-1 were identic infra-red spectrum between reference materials vs., crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves. Table 1 at bellow w as presented specific function molecules of crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves after assessment by FT-IR by references of NOERDIN (1985). Analysis LC ESI-MS by Triple Stage Quadruple Mass Spectrometers were obtained that compound of progesterone like effect in extract methanol Benalu duku leaves were identic to reference materials of medroxy progesterone acetate, progesterone, megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone. Table 2 at bellow explained that retention time and ion molecule of ESI (m/z) as dependent variable of extract methanol Benalu duku leaves was similar to retention time and ion molecules of ESI references material. Table 1. Infra-red spectrum (cm-1) and intensity (%T) crude extract benalu duku and reference materials of progesterone like effect substances Extract benalu duku Progesterone Med. Prog. acet Megestrol acetate Dydrogesterone Identified function group, cm-1  ± %T cm-1 %T cm-1 %T cm-1 %T cm-1 %T 3500-3400 15-11 3436.69 72 3434,34 0,11 3436,39 10,16 3435,72-3374,34 14,17-14,58 0-H 2927,33 12,87 2969,05-2925 10,25-8,22 Absent 2946,49-2927,66 12,04-12,17 2989,16-2930,19 5,05-13,35 Unsymmetrical vibration, stretching C-H 1632,88 17,15 1699,13-1616,17 49-8,83 1638,95 1,05 1664,2-1629,09 6,49-10,9 1659,51-1620,82 1,24-2,94 Stretching aromatic ring (1,s) 1458,07 18,49 1438,76 15,45 1401,19 3,29 1458,7 14,88 1452,06 14,48 Stretching aromatic ring (s) 1272,22 19,21 1279,25-1268,89 17,85-18,67 Absent 1269,83 10,1 1277,7 12,4 Flexible C-H on orbital (l) 1203,09 19,36 1204,91 14,97 Absent 1206,31 14,18 1193,1 7,97 Alkene, R-OH, stretching vibration C-H, aromatic 1169,44 19,73 1179,06-1162,48 17,64-16,36 Absent 1166,41 16,27 1174,79-1162,58 17,08-14,51 -CH—CH-(trans),R-CH2 1062,81 19,17 1116,32 19,96 1112,60 3,28 1083,18-1058,62 16,29-15,81 1064,16 21,79 Cà ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ã‚ CH2, mono substitute alkenes 826,55 23,84 871,18 17,15 Absent 877,33-796,78 14,9-21,26 831,21-793,86 24,45-23,51 Tri substitute alkenes, meta-di subtitute Benzene (aromatic) 721,48 23,67 778,14-687,31 21,77-21,17 Absent 755,83-713,19 20,62 727,77 23,21 cis-di substitute alkenes, mono substitute benzene, meta-disub. benzene (Aromatic) 639,21 23,8 687,31 21,17 644,79 2,57 634,94 20,65 630,99 18,55 cis-di substituted alkenes (vinyl, C-H) Table. 2. Result analysis retention time and molecules ion of ESI between crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves and reference material as medroxy progesterone acetate, progesterone, megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone Analytes Weight ( µg/ml) Area Retention time (minutes) Electron Spray Ionization (ESI) (m/z) Crude extract benalu duku leaves 0,0646 227044 4.40 387.000 Medroxy progesterone acetate 0,15 99585 4.40 387.000 Crude extract benalu duku leavesFigure 1 to Figure 4 at below obtained that LC ESI-MS of extract methanol benalu duku leaves were containing identic active substances of medroxy progesterone acetate, progesterone, megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone. Discussion Analysis by retention time and ESI (m/z) of LC ESI-MS were apparently just two of progesterone like effect substances on crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves that very identic substances to reference material namely medroxy progesterone acetate and progesterone. Other progesterone like effect substances as a megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone on crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves were mostly identic to reference material of megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone by different shift at 0.01 and 0.6 retention time of reference materials. Difference in retention time shift is closely linked nature of polarity samples bound to the column Hypersil Gold of LC. Thus the most likely molecular structure of megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone on methanol extract of benalu duku no resemblance to 100% identically as reference materials of megestrol acetate and dydrogesterone. Analysis to compare between the values of molecule ion fragments (m/z) and ESI (m/z) reference materials of f ourth progesterone like effect substances versus identically substances of progesterone like effect on crude extract methanol benalu duku leaves were apparently have a differences values (p

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Influential Thinkers In Enlightenment

Influential Thinkers In Enlightenment The most significant development in the 18th century was intellectual progress, known as the Enlightenment. It is a thought movement which gathered various conceptions of god, nature and human beings to a kind of world outlook. Many people approve it. The movement caused revolution changes in art, philosophy and politics. It also advocated reason, suspected church authorities and Feudalism. The ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers had a deeply impact on the European and the Euro-American societies. The most important factor of the Enlightenment was the scientific revolution. Between the 17th century and the 18th century, based on direct observation and mathematical reasoning, astronomers and physicists saw the earth and the universe in a new vision. Relying on observation and mathematics, scholars transformed the natural science in a process which is known as the scientific revolution. Some astronomers and mathematicians also made contribution to the revolution. Ptolemy wrote a book known as the Almagest that combined opinions about the universe. He thought that the earth was at its centre. However, in 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus published a treatise On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres that broke with Ptolemaic theory and argued that the sun stood at the centre of the universe. Kepler demonstrated that planetary orbits are elliptical. Gailleo who invented the telescope used it to view the universe. He popularized the idea that the universe is rational and subject to the laws of mathematics (Bentley, 2002). Another powerful figure was Isaac Newton who culminated the new approach to science. He combined mathematical modeling and scientific observation to derive his famous laws of motion and theory of universal gravitation. Newtons vision of the universe was so powerful and persuasive that its influence extended well beyond science. His work suggested that rational analysis of human behavior and institutions could lead to fresh insights about the human as well as the natural world (Bentley, 2002). Inspired and supported by three innovative astronomers, physicists and mathematicians. European and Euro-American thinkers started an ambitious project to transform all human thought. They abandoned Aristotelian philosophy, Christian religion, and other traditionally recognized authorities, and they began to analyze the world where they live in a rational way. Enlightenment thinkers sought to discover natural laws that governed human society. John Lock, the English philosopher, is the founder of empiricis. He sought to identify the principles of psychology and argued that all human knowledge comes from sense perceptions. He threw away Rene Descartess innate ideas and argued that experience offered spiritual conception to humans heart. He believed the world is consisted of material. His empiricism was continuously developed by later people and became the European main philosophy trend. In politics, he held constitutional monarchy and natural right which includes life, freedom and prop erty right. Between 1689 and 1690 he wrote the most important political treatises The Government. In the first treatise, he disproved Filmers idea that god conferred the monarch authority. In the second treatise, he advocated the rulers authorities should be agreed by the ruled and the only purpose of building country is protecting the security and peoples right. When the government went against the purpose, people have the right to take back the authority by taking action (John Locke, 2010). The Scottish philosopher Adam Smith devoted special thought to the nature of early capitalist society and the principles that made it work. In 1776 he published a lengthy book An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, a wide-ranging work that uphold free, unregulated markets and capitalist corporation as the main factor of prosperity. The source of Smiths optimism about capitalism is his conviction that society as a whole benefits when individuals pursue their own economic interests and trade on a free market (Bentley, 2002). France , the center of the Enlightenment, produced many prominent intellectuals known as philosophes who advanced the cause of reason. For example, the French nobleman Charles Louis sought to establish a science of politics and discover principles that would promote political liberty in a prosperous and stable state. Different from philophers, philosophes addressed their works more to the educated public than to scholars. Instead of formal philosophical treatises, they mostly composed histories, novels, dramas, satires, and pamphlets on religious, moral, and political issues. The leader of the Enlightenment is Voltaire who is a philosophe, a writer and a philosopher. Voltaire championed individual freedom and attacked oppressive policies with encouraged witty remark and intense irony. He held nature right and thought that people are equal in nature and before the law. He also waged a long literary campaign against the Roman Catholic church, which he is in the charge of crazy, intolerance and incalculable human suffering. He considered that the church is a factor of oppression (Voltaire, 2010). As the earlier famous philosophe, Hobbes created machine materialism. He thought that the universe consisted of all the moving extension object. He tried hard to explain humans emotion and desire by the principle of mechanical motion. His moral thought includes natural rights and natural laws. The former one means that humans natural character is egoism. The latter means that humans reason rules morality. He disproved the idea that god confers the authority to rulers. He advocated absolute monarchy. He also considered that society had to follow the general will (Hobbes, 2010). As one of the representative of the Enlightenment, Rousseau is a radical who made the most fierce and severe criticize on French feudal society. His ideological essence and basic principle is sovereignty of the people. He considered that all rights belongs to people, government and officials are appointed by people, people have the right to appoint the government, people have the right to replace them, even have the right to revolt in order to abolish rulers who oppress people. He also thought that citizens should observe the law because it is free behaviour. In education, he proposed the idea return to nature that let childrens body freely develop (Rousseau, 2010). Although Enlightenment thinkers reached common ground on the excellence and the effect of humans reason, yet they hold different opinions on detailed issues in politics, religion, philosophy and so on. In politics, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire and Hobbes all supported with natural rights. Locke and Hobbess nature rights includes life right, freedom right and property right, they thought that people have the right to gain legal property; however, Voltaire thought that the unequal property right can not be avoided and Hobbes thought that natural rights is egoism. Locke and Hobbes both objected to innate ideas and Voltaire and Rousseau both approved with innate ideas. Locke and Rousseau advocated revolutionary legitimacy. But Hobbes insisted on the opinion that people must obey if the ruler was conferred authority. Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau all advocated freedom and equality. Rousseau considered that the law is very important, people should accept it. Hobbes and Voltaire did not agree w ith division of power. Voltaire thought that rulers power came from the ruled, the only purpose of building country is protecting the security and peoples right, when the government went against the purpose, people have the right to take back the authority by taking action. But Locke advocated distribution of power. Locke, Rousseau and Hobbes all advocated social contract. Rousseau considered private ownership is the source of unequal state. In philosophy, Locke and Voltaire both admitted the idea that the world is consisted of material. Rousseau and Voltaire both considered that acknowledge rose from experience. Locke thought peoples heart was just like a paper and experience offered mind conception to it. Hobbes considered that material can not be separated from idea and material did not rely on our thought. In religion, Voltaire and Rousseau are both deist. Voltaire and Hobbes both disproved religion, they thought religion is requisite to maintain social order. The ideas of these Enlightenment thinkers made a lot of contribution to the community. What worth being mentioned is that their ideas not only exert great influence on the scholars, but also affect the European political world, including the most influential figures at that that time such as Napoleon and Queen Catherine. Influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, Napoleon who overthrew the Diretory and became a French military dictator created a united legal code for France. The code included that equal before the law, careers open to talent, free belief, protection of private property, abolition of feudalism and a secular state (Napoleon, 2010). Napoleon also valued education. As the most able Russian monarch, Catherine also influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment. She encouraged nobles to travel in Western Europe and building school to educate aristocrats. She often communicated with some philosophes. She regarded herself as an enlightened despot. She limited the punishment s that the nobles inflicted on the serfs. She also abolished the death punishment. But when the thoughts challenged her rule, she began to object to it (Catherine, 2010). Although the ideas were not carried out completely to the end, it also shook some traditional thoughts. The impact of Enlightenment on human history should never be undervalued. It weakened the influence of organized religion. It also encouraged the replacement of Christian values, which had guided Europeans on religion and moral affairs for a very long time. Furthermore, it encouraged political and cultural leaders to rationally analyze the society and intervene actively in the Enlightenment matters for the interests that brought from promoting progress and prosperity. In many ways, the Enlightenment thought continues to influence European and Euro-American societies in the following centuries. Reference List Bentley Jerry H. (2002). Adam Smith on the capitalist market. Traditions Encounters. The McGraw-Hill companies. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from p657 Bentley Jerry H. (2002). The limits of westernization. Traditions Encounters. The McGraw-Hill companies. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from p786 Bentley Jerry H. (2002). Science and enlightenment. Traditions Encounters. The McGraw-Hill companies. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from pp658-662 Hobbes. (2010). Baike baidu. Retrieved May 22 2010, from http:// htm Locke, J. (2010). Baike baidu. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http://baike. Napoleon. (2010). Baike baidu. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from Rousseau. (2010). Baike baidu. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http;// com/view/6499.htm Voltaire. (2010). Baike baidu. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from

Monday, August 19, 2019

Bruce Lee :: essays research papers

In the Book Bruce Lee: They Died too Young, writer Jon Lewis tells the story of the greatest martial artist that ever lived. Known as Lee Jun Fan only to his family, Bruce Lee was an enthusiastic boy who took a special interest in the martial arts. Unfortunately,his life was cut short at the age of only thirty-two. Through this short yet unbelievably incredible life, Bruce Lee still proves to be an excellent role model due to his discipline,determination, and self-improvement. One of Bruce Lee’s best characteristics was his discipline. During Bruce’s teenage years he was a member of a street gang that simply went looking for fights. However, through martial arts Bruce developed discipline and was soon able to control himself. Bruce’s discipline is easily seen in this quote about problems that occurred on the set of Enter the Dragon. "Another problem was that the martial arts extras- most of whom were members of the Chinese crime syndicate, the Triads, would sometimes challenge Bruce to a real fight. For the most part Bruce would ignore it" (30). Bruce’s discipline can also be seen in the amount that he practiced his martial arts. He would practice everyday for hours, and even as a young child he was always practicing. "Bruce Lee’s devotion to kung fu was total. At home, during dinner, he pounded away on a stool with alternate hands to toughen them" (8). Although Bruce Lee is a good role model due to his discipline, it is not the only reason. The second characteristic that made Bruce Lee a good role model was his determination. During his life Bruce Lee was constantly plagued with problems. One of these was chronic back pains. "In 1970 Bruce injured his back in a weight-lifting session. The diagnosis was that he had permanently damaged his fourth sacral nerve. Not only would he need months of bed rest, the doctors informed him, but he would never practice kung fu again" (18). Despite the doctors orders, Bruce began exercising again after only six months, and within a year he was again in top physical condition. Yet another example of Bruce Lee’s determination is found in his struggle to get a job and support his family. Once Bruce had gotten settled in America, he was constantly in and out of a job. "He had been paid $400 a week during filming and drove a red Porsche.

Abortion - Denying the Undeniable Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive To

Denying the Undeniable      Ã‚   Grief after induced abortion is often more profound and delayed than grief after other perinatal losses. Grief after elective abortion is uniquely poignant because it is largely hidden. The post-abortion woman's grief is not acknowledged by society because the reality of her child's death is not acknowledged. In order to gain her consent for the abortion she has been told that the procedure will remove a "blob of tissue" a "product of conception", or a "pre-embryo." She has been assured that her "problem will be solved" and that she will be able to "get on with her life" as though nothing significant had happened. Yet the pregnant woman knows by the changes in her body that something very significant is happening to her: her menses have stopped, her breasts are enlarging, she is sick in the morning (or all day long), and she knows that the process which has begun in her will most likely result in the birth of a baby in nine months time if allowed to run its course. She is aware of the expected date of delivery and she has often thought of a name for her baby as she has begun to picture the child as he or she would be at birth (Bonding begins very early in pregnancy.). All of these feelings and fantasies about her pregnancy must be denied in order to undergo an elective abortion. The pregnant woman is asked to deny the fact that she is carrying a child at all!    Theresa Bonopartis relates her true story in her book, Divine Mercy In My Soul:    I could feel the baby thrashing around as his skin and lungs were burned by the saline. He was dying. Labor began. After twelve hours of labor, alone in the room, I gave birth to a dead baby boy. I looked at his tiny feet and hands. All... ...hat they have committed 'the unforgivable sin' and fear God's anger.    Women who have had an abortion often have many questions, the answers to which are indispensable to beginning the healing journey. Can God ever forgive me? Can my child? Can I ever forgive myself? Will the Church let me stay when I confess this sin? Will this horrible pain ever go away? Is healing possible? The answer to all these questions is, of course, YES!    WORKS CITED    "Aftermath."    Bishops, US Catholic. "Bishops' Official Notes Coverage of Post-Abortion Program."    Bonopartis, Theresa. Divine Mercy In MY Soul.    "Stories of Healing."

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Ancient Kemet :: World History

Ancient Kemet Egypt was without question the first great civilization in Africa. Surrounded by the hostile desert, Egypt arose as a populous settlement as a "gift of the Nile River," which flooded surrounding plains and thus supported game and wild plants. Straddling the strategic land crossroads between Africa, Asia, and Europe, Egypt also became a point for interchange between the Mediterranean and Red seas and the Persian Gulf. Many developments affecting the rest of Africa took place in or near the Nile Valley, such as the cultivation of plants and the development of metal smelting. Thus, Egypt's major role in forming early African civilizations has been well established. In modern times, scholars often underestimated the contributions of ancient Egypt to European civilization. More than two millennia ago, when the Ptolemaic Greeks came to rule Egypt, they extensively adopted and interpreted Egyptian spiritual, material, political, aesthetic, and intellectual systems. Although later Greek authorities freely acknowledged their cultural debt to Egypt, during the nineteenth century many European writers, limited by their ethnocentrism and racism, decided that black Africa could have had nothing to do with Europe's rise to greatness. Some treated Egypt as Middle Eastern and divorced it from the rest of Africa, whereas others went further, asserting the preeminence of northern Aryan sources of Greek civilization to the virtual exclusion of Semitic, African, and Egyptian influences. Beginning in ancient times, Egypt was a genuine crossroads of peoples and cultures, and its peoples were multiethnic and multiracial, as depicted in dynastic drawings of their rulers. They came from as far way as Asia Minor and Nubia, in the upper Nile Valley. Ancient Kemet :: World History Ancient Kemet Egypt was without question the first great civilization in Africa. Surrounded by the hostile desert, Egypt arose as a populous settlement as a "gift of the Nile River," which flooded surrounding plains and thus supported game and wild plants. Straddling the strategic land crossroads between Africa, Asia, and Europe, Egypt also became a point for interchange between the Mediterranean and Red seas and the Persian Gulf. Many developments affecting the rest of Africa took place in or near the Nile Valley, such as the cultivation of plants and the development of metal smelting. Thus, Egypt's major role in forming early African civilizations has been well established. In modern times, scholars often underestimated the contributions of ancient Egypt to European civilization. More than two millennia ago, when the Ptolemaic Greeks came to rule Egypt, they extensively adopted and interpreted Egyptian spiritual, material, political, aesthetic, and intellectual systems. Although later Greek authorities freely acknowledged their cultural debt to Egypt, during the nineteenth century many European writers, limited by their ethnocentrism and racism, decided that black Africa could have had nothing to do with Europe's rise to greatness. Some treated Egypt as Middle Eastern and divorced it from the rest of Africa, whereas others went further, asserting the preeminence of northern Aryan sources of Greek civilization to the virtual exclusion of Semitic, African, and Egyptian influences. Beginning in ancient times, Egypt was a genuine crossroads of peoples and cultures, and its peoples were multiethnic and multiracial, as depicted in dynastic drawings of their rulers. They came from as far way as Asia Minor and Nubia, in the upper Nile Valley.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Modern Architecture

Rakhshaan Qazi-Â ­? Modern Architecture, Essay two Four of the leading architects of the modernist period were Adolf Loos, Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies Van der Rode, and Louis Kahn. These architects drew significantly from each other and explored similar ideas in their establishing of a new standard in approaching architecture. Decoration became a taboo while simpler and more functional forms took their place. I am going to be talking about Loius Kahn and how he is talked abut in different texts. Loius Kahn was both more subtle and radical than all the rchitects mentioned din his book so far. From early on Kahn was interested in housing reform movements and working on mostly government housing projects. Kahn strongly believed that there was a dire need for civic architecture, which would eventually ignite a sense of common purpose and democratic participation. Kahn went from the modernist tradition to a fusion of Viollet-Â ­? de-Â ­? Duc and neoclassicism. And eventually to a m ore or less, unchanging form types. His convergence between the two was suggested by platonic geometries found in nature. He strongly isagreed with the concept of a free plan, and believed in the aggregation of identical rooms, which broke down architecture to its most primitive unit of meaning. When Louis Kahn worked on a space, he would try to understand the spiritual quality of the spaces and put that into the materials that he used for the place. He’d pay specific attention to technical aspects of things and to work precisely. He had great control over the materials he used. He liked to think of his spaces as servant spaces, meaning that these were spaces in buildings that would erve other spaces and allow each other to exist. He believed strongly that architecture appeals to the community it serves as well as the already recognized structural functionality. He added that architecture should reveal the story of the construction through materiality. His major mission was t o put the spiritual sense of the space into the material. He was trying to figure out how to materialize the spirituality of the space. He had a mastery of monumentality; he understood attempted to integrate as much of nature as possible into his urban work. He hought that nature should become a basis on which American modern architecture should emerge. A lot of his work into the 30s was focused more on giving American society a social form during times of crisis, working on things like decentralized utopia, including cheap single family dwellings, the Usonian houses. These were for middle class families and encouraged them to gather in the same place. This encouraged the concrete slab roofs for the practicality and suggested a new concept for independent living. He was strictly at odds with the international odern movement. Although his use of slabs can be related to this movement, they were, in actuality, at odds with it due to this specifically American idea of living free in nat ure. He wanted to fuse function, structure, and idea while being inspired by natural forms. His whole obsession with community planning was based on the idea of spreading away from cities and moving more into suburban areas. He fantasized that people would be able to access the service aspects of urban communities and the facility aspects of rural areas all at the same time.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Dramatic Incident Essay

â€Å"Never messed up with me or else, I will get back on you! † This is the line that the people around me were used in hearing for almost 5 years, since my college days. I was such a braggart, an attention deficit student in our College Department in BS Psychology. I wanted to be always the center of attraction to anyone. All I wanted was attention, love and respect. The things which were deprived by my family, friends and peers. I can say that because of what and how people treated me when I was still in high school made me in to who I was in College and until now. When I was in high school, I used to be the laughing stock in our room. Why? because of how I looked. I did not appear appealing to my classmates and even teachers. They based their respect and love with looks. I was so devastated that time that it came to a point where I asked myself. Why am I like this? Why do I look like this? Why do I have to be laughed of? Do not I have to right also to be respected and loved? All these things ruled in my mind for 4 years in high school. It was not just in school, but also in my family, in my home! They thought of me as nobody. They even didn’t recognize my achievement. I tried my best to be an honor student for them to appreciate me, but I was just frustrated. They never did! All their attention was with my beautiful sister. My ever loving, pretty and obedient sister named Grace. They always supported her on everything she does, in everything! I was so mad at this reality! That I decided that when I finished high school, I will get my freedom. I will redeem my being back, the one they stole from me. Then I graduated high school as a Valedictorian. Never have I received any appreciation or any rewards from them. But they did not know that it was already my time to see and let them see the side of me that they would not want to see. I enrolled at a known University as a scholar. I enrolled in BS Psychology. Then after one semester, I flanked all my subjects, I quarreled with a professor, I had a fight with Mrs. McGowan, who is the Dean of our College. I was so happy upon seeing my family suffer because of what I have done. They were so angry that their anger put me into the insanity of happiness. It was just the start of my revenge. Then second semester came, I enrolled in BS Nursing. After one week they found out that I did not paid the money they gave me which was intended for my tuition. They were horrified at this! Again, I was so happy. My mouth was filled with laughter then. After that event, I had a physical fight with a classmate. It made the Dean of Nursing call their attention for my detention. Then a week after that, I met a Mark. Our neighbor which was my long time friend. I courted the guy. Yes! I was the one who courted him and good thing he said yes. We went out for 3 weeks then suddenly, one cold night. I asked him to elope with me. At first he said no, for surely my parents were going to kill him. But I insisted and insisted. I blackmailed him that if he won’t agree, I will kill myself. Then he finally said yes. In the morning after that, we did it. We went to a place where nobody knew about us. In a secluded place, there we stayed for two days. After those days, I received a phone call saying that my mom had a heart attack. I was horrified upon hearing this. Even if I am such a stupid and disobedient daughter, I still love and cherish my mother so much. My mother who brought us up. The one toiled a living just for us to be in school and have a future. In hearing that bad news, I was so devastated and immediately decided to go back in our place. My boyfriend allowed me then so I immediately packed my things up and proceed to our home. I went there with my boyfriend. When we stepped into the house, all my siblings welcomed me with arms wide open. I could feel their love and care. They were all asking forgiveness at me. They were sorry for they knew they caused me too much hurt starting from the past. We exchanged forgiveness. I have nothing to do but to forgive them. I love my siblings so much that I do not want any trouble between us anymore. After we reconciled, we then went to the hospital to visit my mom. Upon arriving their, I talked with my mom. I asked forgiveness and her too. I explained my part and poured everything that I felt from the start. Just after I embraced my mom, she died. She held my hand so tight that I shouted from the very top of my voice. â€Å"Oh Lord! What have I done! If not of what I did, she should have been alive† talking to myself in front of the mirror. I was so guilty; my conscience was eating me up. I cried, and cried. I asked forgiveness for all the things that I have done that caused her so much hurt. I regretted the day when I decided to take my revenge against them. I was so downcast, I was so gloomy. I thought to myself, I should have been the one lying dead in the hospital bed and not my mother! I felt like I was the killer. But my siblings hugged me and said they did not blame me for what happened. It should not have been that way if I was not eaten up by my anger. But then things already happened. I guess things happen for a reason. They happen for a specific purpose in our lives, in my life. We should learn to forgive and forget. Forgive even if that person caused you too much pain, and forget, even if the experience and hurt is unforgettable. God has a purpose in everything. He let things happen in our lives for us to become strong and firm in our faith in Him. We should learn to rely on Him and not to ourselves. God would not give us something we can not bear. He will never leave us nor forsake us, even to the lowest valleys in our lives. He will always be there for us. I have realized that He is the only one that I need. I do not need anybody to feel love. I just need my Lord, my God! He is all that I wanted which I should have realized from the beginning. He is my only refuge and strength in times of trouble. His love is just enough and very satisfying in my soul. He is my all in all. I believe that my mother is already happy in heaven. I know she has forgiven me already. And I know she is there with God, eternally.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Claims vs Arguments Essay

Claims is defined as, â€Å"a statement asserts something to be the case or not the case† (Critical Thinking: Issues, Claims, Arguments, 2011), which is consistent with the definition given by Wood (2012,Topic 1,p.7), which states that a claim is an assertion or demand for recognition of a truth, an example of a claim is â€Å"Organizational behavior is an essential subject†. And I agreed with the two definitions on claims because, based on my personal experience as a former team member of my college’s debate team, everyone is allowed to make claims over the subject that was chosen to be debated. On the other hand, an argument is defined as, â€Å"sets of propositions (claims/statements) which contain premises that are offered to support the truth of a conclusion† (May,2010), or in another words, it means â€Å"trying to convince each other on things we don’t agree on† (Critical Thinking: Issues, Claims, Arguments, 2011). Using the above example, others may not agree on my claim and say â€Å"Organization Behavior is not an essential subject†, this is where an argument begins and to support it, there are 3 ways to do so, supporting an argument with authority, evidence and a persuasive writing style. Supporting an argument with authority means, â€Å"To bolster an argument is to use the word of an expert†, (Roberts, 2010). However, there are pros and cons to this statement, the pros are because he/she is an expert, and has been in his area of speciality for many years, therefore, his/her words can be reliable and can be used to support an argument. But not forgetting that the words he/she said could be based on his/her personal opinion and could contain certain level of biasness. For example, â€Å"Organisational Behaviour is an essential subject† because my lecturers said so, this may not be convincing enough. To further â€Å"enhance† your argument, it needs to be supported with evidences, such as facts personal experience or an actual event. A strong thesis also requires solid evidence to support and develop it because without evidence, a claim is merely an unsubstantiated idea or opinion (Indiana University Bloomington, 2010), I agree because solid evidence will provide the competitive advantage over others. For example, â€Å"Organisational Behaviour is an essential subject because as a team leader in a multi-racial company, I applied what I’ve learnt on managing for diversity, not only does it prevent inter-racial conflicts, it also improves the company’s productivity.† This is obviously a better argument compared to earlier argument. Lastly, after gathering all evidence, we need to try to get the readers to agree on our argument; this is where persuasive writing style comes in handy. According to Landsberger (1996), in persuasive writing, we try to convince others to agree with our facts, share our values, accept our argument and conclusion. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the difference is that claims are statements made by someone on a certain issue, whereas an argument occurs when others do not agree and wishes to argue with their own claims. An argument needs to be support with authority, evidences and persuasive writing, evidences is the most important factor in my opinion as arguments are mostly based on facts, and facts needs to be accurate and be related to the argument as much as possible.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Effects of Alcoholic Drinks to College Students Essay

Although alcohol may give you a feeling of elation and aroused senses due to a lessening of inhibitions during the early stages of alcohol intoxication, alcohol is a depressant. It depresses the central nervous system—leading to slowed reactions, slurred speech, and ultimately, to unconsciousness. Alcohol progressively affects different brain areas. Alcohol first affects the part of the brain that controls inhibitions. When people lose their inhibitions, they may talk more, get rowdy, and do foolish things. After several drinks, they may feel â€Å"high,† but really, their nervous system is slowing down. Alcohol acts fast because it is not digested like food. Instead, it moves directly into the bloodstream from the stomach and small intestine. It takes a long time for alcohol’s effects to wear off—as it takes approximately one hour for the liver to process the alcohol in one drink. ALCOHOL’S DAMAGING EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN Difficulty walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, impaired memory: Clearly, alcohol affects the brain. Some of these impairments are detectable after only one or two drinks and quickly resolve when drinking stops. On the other hand, a person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain deficits that persist well after he or she achieves sobriety. Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today. We do know that heavy drinking may have extensive and far–reaching effects on the brain, ranging from simple â€Å"slips† in memory to permanent and debilitating conditions that require lifetime custodial care. And even moderate drinking leads to short–term impairment, as shown by extensive research on the impact of drinking on driving. A number of factors influence how and to what extent alcohol affects the brain (1), including * how much and how often a person drinks; * the age at which he or she first began drinking, and how long he or she has been drinking; * the person’s age, level of education, gender, genetic background, and family history of alcoholism; * whether he or she is at risk as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure; and * his or her general health status. BLACKOUTS AND MEMORY LAPSES. Alcohol can produce detectable impairments in memory after only a few drinks and, as the amount of alcohol increases, so does the degree of impairment. Large quantities of alcohol, especially when consumed quickly and on an empty stomach, can produce a blackout, or an interval of time for which the intoxicated person cannot recall key details of events, or even entire events. Blackouts are much more common among social drinkers than previously assumed and should be viewed as a potential consequence of acute intoxication regardless of age or whether the drinker is clinically dependent on alcohol (2). White and colleagues (3) surveyed 772 college undergraduates about their experiences with blackouts and asked, â€Å"Have you ever awoken after a night of drinking not able to remember things that you did or places that you went? † Of the students who had ever consumed alcohol, 51 percent reported blacking out at some point in their lives, and 40 percent reported experiencing a blackout in the year before the survey. Of those who reported drinking in the 2 weeks before the survey, 9. 4 percent said they blacked out during that time. The students reported learning later that they had participated in a wide range of potentially dangerous events they could not remember, including vandalism, unprotected sex, and driving. Binge Drinking and Blackouts| †¢ Drinkers who experience blackouts typically drink too much and too quickly, which causes their blood alcohol levels to rise very rapidly. College students may be at particular risk for experiencing a blackout, as an alarming number of college students engage in binge drinking. Binge drinking, for a typical adult, is defined as consuming five or more drinks in about 2 hours for men, or four or more drinks for women. | ARE WOMEN MORE VULNERABLE TO ALCOHOL’S EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN? Women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol use. For example, alcoholic women develop cirrhosis (5), alcohol–induced damage of the heart muscle (i. e. , cardiomyopathy) (6), and nerve damage (i. e. , peripheral neuropathy) (7) after fewer years of heavy drinking than do alcoholic men. Studies comparing men and women’s sensitivity to alcohol–induced brain damage, however, have not been as conclusive. Using imaging with computerized tomography, two studies (8,9) compared brain shrinkage, a common indicator of brain damage, in alcoholic men and women and reported that male and female alcoholics both showed significantly greater brain shrinkage than control subjects. Studies also showed that both men and women have similar learning and memory problems as a result of heavy drinking (10). The difference is that alcoholic women reported that they had been drinking excessively for only about half as long as the alcoholic men in these studies. This indicates that women’s brains, like their other organs, are more vulnerable to alcohol–induced damage than men’s (11). SUMMARY Alcoholics are not all alike. They experience different degrees of impairment, and the disease has different origins for different people. Consequently, researchers have not found conclusive evidence that any one variable is solely responsible for the brain deficits found in alcoholics. Characterizing what makes some alcoholics vulnerable to brain damage whereas others are not remains the subject of active research (34). The good news is that most alcoholics with cognitive impairment show at least some improvement in brain structure and functioning within a year of abstinence, though some people take much longer (35–37). Clinicians must consider a variety of treatment methods to help people stop drinking and to recover from alcohol–related brain impairments, and tailor these treatments to the individual patient. Advanced technology will have an important role in developing these therapies. Clinicians can use brain–imaging techniques to monitor the course and success of treatment, because imaging can reveal structural, functional, and biochemical changes in living patients over time. Promising new medications also are in the early stages of development, as researchers strive to design therapies that can help prevent alcohol’s harmful effects and promote the growth of new brain cells to take the place of those that have been damaged by alcohol.  ¦ As well as damaging their health, university students who drink too much alcohol may also be damaging their academic performance. Alcohol: The Benefits of Moderate Drinking Drinking alcohol in moderate amounts can have positive influences on physical and mental health. While alcohol is one of the most widely abused substances on the market, it is also one that features certain benefits for drinkers who consume it in safe amounts. For individuals who consume low levels of alcohol, benefits like reduced stress, increased cardiovascular health and decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes offer a wealth of reasons for consumers to drink in moderation. Reduce Stress, Anxiety and Tension Research shows that the consumption of alcohol in moderate amounts can lead to certain psychological benefits. Low levels of alcohol can trigger stress reduction, easy feelings of anxiety and help consumers to reduce tension. In addition, low levels of alcohol consumption can also cause the consumer to feel more pleasant and relaxed. Studies on sleep show that people who drink in moderation get more sleep on average than do those who indulge in excess. These psychological effects of moderate drinking are positive ones that can be beneficial to the consumer. A Longer Life The positive psychological effects of drinking in moderation can be associated with the studies that show moderate drinkers tend to love longer than people who don’t drink at all or those who drink in excess. Studies from a number of different countries including China, the United States and England indicate that longevity is highest among groups of people who drink alcohol in moderation. Increased Cardiovascular Health Several studies have shown that drinking alcohol in moderation has a positive correlation with certain aspects of cardiovascular health. In particular, the risk of developing coronary artery disease is significantly lowered in conjunction with moderate consumption of alcohol. Another link between alcohol and cardiovascular health shows that moderate consumption of alcohol has a positive correlation with survivability in the event of a heart attack. Those who drink low levels of alcohol are more likely to live and less likely to experience another heart attack. Alcohol produces several positive effects on the body when consumed in low levels. For example, it increases levels of good cholesterol (HDL) and lowers levels of bad cholesterol (LDL). Alcohol also acts as a blood thinner once it enters the human body, much like common aspirin does. Thus, when consumed in moderation, it can reduce the likelihood of developing blood clots in arteries. Decreased Risk for Type 2 Diabetes While consuming alcohol in large quantities has been proven to put drinkers at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes, some studies show that drinking in moderation might have the opposite effect. The relationship between alcohol and type 2 diabetes is the focus of a great number of ongoing studies. Findings show, however, that moderate drinkers are less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than heavy drinkers. All of these health benefits associated with moderate drinking serve as an incentive for consumers to limit their levels of alcohol intake. Too much alcohol eliminates the health benefits described above. The best way to maximize on the health benefits of alcohol is to consume it in low levels. Negative Effects of Drinking Alcohol on Physical Fitness While occasional alcohol use may not have a major impact on physical activity, there is a clear link between sports, exercise and drinking alcohol. In fact, alcohol is the most widely used drug by athletes which is why alcohol related difficulties seem to be more common among those who exercise regularly. It is clear that drinking in excess can negatively influence exercise. Studies done to determine the influence that alcohol has on exercise Studies have shown that consuming alcohol has the following influence on exercise: *Diminishes the use of amino acids and glucose by the muscles of the skeleton *A detrimental influence on the supply of energy *An impairment in metabolism while exercising In addition, persuasive evidence implies that continual use of alcohol is connected with unfavorable effects on systems of the body and organs, including the liver, brain, heart and blood vessels. Exercising while under the influence of alcohol Drinking alcohol has a negative influence on motor skills, stamina and aerobic ability. Alcohol has the following effects on motor skills: *Delayed reaction time *A decrease in hand-eye coordination *Less precision and balance Alcohol has the following effects on strength training and short term athletic functioning: *A decline in athletic performance as a whole. *Decreased times in cycling and running *Weakened pumping power of the heart *Impaired temperature control while exercising *Weakening of grip strength *Decreased jump altitude *Lower 200 and 400-meter running performance *Becoming tired more quickly while participating in high-intensity workouts Alcohol has the following effects on aerobic performance: *Dehydration *Considerably diminished aerobic performance *Hindered 800 and 1500-meter running speeds *An increase in health risks after working out in hot atmospheres for an extended amount of time Working out with a hangover. A hangover is caused by a number of factors including, dehydration and toxicity from the alcohol. The symptoms include a gloomy mood and headache. Unfortunately, these side effects can cause a decline in athletic performance. Working out with a hangover has been shown to considerably decrease aerobic adequacy by as great as 11 percent. Long term effects that alcohol has on exercise performance Long term, heavy (more than two drinks each day) alcohol use can impair exercise in the following ways: *Hindering the cardiovascular reaction to exercise. *Cause nutritional deficits from changes in nutrient consumption, digestion and metabolism. *Cause muscle injury, wasting and feebleness in several muscles, including the heart. *Changing the body’s hormonal atmosphere It is also important to note that women might be more susceptible to the toxic results of alcohol on the heart. It is clear that drinking in excess can negatively influence exercise. Alcoholism is a growing problem in the United States and is even a problem in teenagers, too. Unfortunately, there are a variety of negative effects that are associated with the consumption of alcohol. While the negative effects can either be long term or short term, all of them start with the first drink of alcohol. Negative effects may not become apparent immediately, but as time goes on, the adverse effects of alcohol will become more and more noticeable and, in some cases, they can even lead to death. Diseases One of the negative effects that alcohol tends to have is the increased risk for multiple serious diseases. Increased consumption of alcohol can lead to serious medical problems such as cirrhosis of the liver, which often results in death. Infections, sleeping disorders and sexual dysfunctions can also be caused by consumption of alcohol. Recent studies have also shown that consumption of alcohol can actually raise the risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer, throat cancer and intestinal cancer. Consuming alcohol can be very serious and there are many grave negative effects that are caused by alcohol. Avoiding alcohol can help you avoid these adverse effects and perhaps even save your life.