Friday, November 29, 2019
Compare Contrast - Wollestonecraft & C. Bronte Vindicating Women's Strength The focus of female literary writers from the seventeenth century into the nineteenth century is to reform men's attitudes toward women. Through their writing, they are encouraging women to gain respect and acceptance as viable, rational and intelligent human beings rather than domestic maidservants created for the pleasure of man. Women writers like Mary Wollstonecraft and Charlotte Bront? forcefully bring these issues into the forefront of societies minds. Wollstonecraft's publication, A Vindication of the Rights of Women is in response to the French Revolution. Arguing the subjugation women endure from the lack of education and legal rights afforded them will result in undermining the government's goals. She bases her response on men's misconception that women lack the basic human intellectual qualities to be equal to men. Bront?'s Jane Eyre is the type of personified woman Wollstonecraft ascribes women to emulate. Jane Eyre, a fictional portrayal of a woman seeking her independence and equal rights is unwilling to sacrifice her principles to satisfy society standards. In 1848 Elizabeth Rigney stated, Jane Eyre is throughout the personification of an unregenerate and undisciplined spirit. (468) Rigney and societies belief is based on the writings of men, as Rousseau, who states women should be pure, submissive, decorous, and even angelic creature[s] (289) depending on men for instruction and guidance to preserve their virtue. Wollstonecraft in her essay detests this type of thinking, believing women should aspire to become masculine. (259) When using the term masculine, she is encouraging if not demanding women to seek out intellectual exercise of which enobles the human character, and which rises females in the scale of animal being, when they are comprehensively termed mankind. . . (259) Wollstonecraft contends, if women are not allowed to have sufficient strength of mind to acquire what really deserves the name of virtue (262) they will remain in a subservient status depending solely on their beauty and charm for fulfillment and direction in life. Bront?'s Jane echo's Wollstonecraft's thoughts. Feeling confined in her governess duties at Thornfield Hall she begins to feel just as men feel; [needing] exercise for [her] faculties and a field for [her] efforts as much as [men] do; suffer[ing] from too rigid a restraint, too absolute stagnation, precisely as men would suffer. (544) Although reasonably content in her employment, Jane longs for the same freedom as men to gain knowledge through experience. She is not willing to mold herself according to the standards of society, as is Blanche Ingram. Jane views Blanche as a product of the training afforded women during this epoch who are taught by example by their mothers, that a little knowledge of human weakness, justly termed cunning, softness of temper, outward obedience, and a scrupulous attention to a puerile kind of propriety, will obtain for them the protection of man. (262) While Jane does seek love and companionship of a man, she must be his equal and allowed to grow intell ectually with him to form a successful and passionate union. Wollstonecraft is contradictory on her advice concerning passion. While she advocates women to be passionate in fighting against the inferior status imposed upon them by society, she discourages passion in love. Her belief on this subject is that love, the common passion, in which chance and sensation take place of choice and reason, is, in some degree, felt by the mass of mankind (268) and the foe of reason and intelligence. Her advice to married couples drives this point home; In order to fulfill the duties of life, and to be able to pursue with vigor the various employment's which form the moral character, a master and mistress of a family ought not to continue to love each other with passion. (269) However, this is not the attitude Wollstonecraft subscribes to in her personal life with Fuseli, Imlay, and Godwin, where she saw no contradiction between reason and passion. Bront? in contrast, employs Jane to be passionate in all areas of her life. Anger is the common emotion Bront? uses to define and develop Jane's character. Angry as a child from the mistreatment she receives at Gateshead and Lowood Institution, as she matures, she learns to temper her passion. Her ability
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Monday, November 25, 2019
Feminism and Womens History Out of the three types of feminisms namely, social, radical, and liberal feminism, I am of the opinion that social feminism would be the most effective in terms of eliminating gender discrimination, improving womens economic and political position in society and helping to bring equality between men and women.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Feminism and WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s History specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social feminism is the perhaps the best approach to ending the struggle of women against economic exploitation, oppression, lack of autonomy or power over oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work, socio-economic marginalization, systematic violence, and cultural imperialism. From a Marxist point of view, domination and power has previously been constantly linked to masculinity. Since power has always been understood from the point of view of men and the ruling class (in other words, the socially dominant), the task of feminists i s therefore to try and reconceptualize power from the point of view of a feminist. In this case, the method of choice should be one that recognizes the life experiences of women and to be precise, the role played by women in reproduction. Social feminism holds that the liberation of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life can only be achieved when a concerted effort is made to both the cultural as well as economic sources of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression. Social feminisms endeavor to address head-on the common root of sexism, classism, and racialism. These issues condemn one to either a privileged life or one of oppression, on the basis of circumstances or on accidents of birth. Accordingly, social feminism can be viewed the creation of social change in an exclusive way. As opposed to competition and conflict, socialist feminist values cooperation and synthesis, and these are noble ways of bringing equality between men and women, and ensuring that the political and economic positions of women in the societ y improve. Socialist feminist endeavors to address the issues of class and capitalism. These are two important issues that Marxism failed to address on grounds of being gender blind. The choice of social feminism is also quite in order since it does not only speak of the oppressions that women have to encounter, but it also attempts to address the issue of capitalism, albeit calmly. This is unlike radical feminists that attempts to overthrown and even challenge patriarchy by opposing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression and gender roles by campaigning for the embracing of a radical social order.Advertising Looking for assessment on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liberal feminists also fail to recognize man as the enemy that needs to be defeated. The intention of the pioneer liberal feminists was to team up with women, men, the white, blacks, the rich and the poor and unite as one. A divided society cannot be able to o vercome gender discrimination. When we view man as the enemy, we fail to focus on the underlying problem, which is the need to ensure equality in the society. Therefore, we need to first create a cordial relationship between the various members of the society regardless of their gender, social, and economic differences. Socialists, along with the radical feminists disapproved of the social order that existed at the time. For this reason, they felt the need to initiate a revolution that would incorporate men as potential allies. In this case, the ultimate goal was to completely abolish gender, class, and racial hierarchies. In this regard, social feminists did not approach the issue from the point of view of the woman. If at all we would want to experience change in the society, the goal should be to ensure that all of us are equal and not just one race or gender. When we approach the issue of race, class and gender with an open mind, this gives women a better chance to assume higher responsibilities in the society. This is because we have managed to break the existing barriers the men are not likely to oppose women in pursuing positions of power. Instead, all have an equal chance of assuming positions of power and responsibility in the society.
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Thursday, November 21, 2019
Marijuana - Essay Example It also indicates that a large percentage of the individuals are regular users of the drug. I intend to use the source to demonstrate marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits in controlling anxiety. Ejelonu, Akudo. Ã¢â¬Å"How Does Marijuana Affect the Brain?Ã¢â¬ Serendip. 01 October 2008. Web. 31 July 2012. The article reviews ways in which marijuana affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capacity. The author illustrates both positive and negative effects of the drug, including MarijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s medicinal value but focuses attention on marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to recall and how the drug influence emotions. Some of the drugÃ¢â¬â¢s components, according to the article, for example impair coordination among neurons in the brain to weaken a personÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive ability upon consumption of the drug. The article also identifies factors that drive people into using marijuana, and secondary effects of marijuana among college students. While it identifies stress as the main cause of usage, the article explains that the drug sends the students into a state of uncontrollable emotions. It also explains that the stimulating impacts of the drug are temporary and users are able to regain their sober status once the drug wears out of the body. I will apply the article in exploring the existing debate on marijuana. Hogan, Julianna, Gonzalez, Adam, Howell, Ashley, Miller, Marcel, and Zvolensky, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Pain-related Anxiety and Marijuana Use Motives: A pilot Test Among Active Marijuana- using Young Adults.Ã¢â¬ Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 39. 4. 238- 292, 2010. The article seeks to investigate anxiety that is caused by pain as a factor that influences the use of marijuana. Based on an experimental research, the article identifies a significant relationship and concludes that pain motivates people to use marijuana. I will use the article to illustrate medicinal benefits of marijuana. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Ã¢â¬Å"How Does Marijuana Use Affect School, Work and Social Life?Ã¢â¬ Research Reports: Marijuana Abuse. 2010. Web. 31 July 2012. P. 1 The article reports on the impacts of marijuana on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Based on existing literature, it explains that intoxication from marijuana lasts for a longer duration that the user experiences its stimulating effect. It further explains that the drug negatively affects academic performance of students who relies on its use. Similarly, it leads to drop out from academic institutions and lower rates of income in people who heavily rely on it as compared to those who do not. The article also associates the drug with other negative social conditions. I will use this source to highlight reasons for illegalization calls. Nida for Teens. Ã¢â¬Å"What are the Long-term Health Effects of Marijuana Use?Ã¢â¬ Nida For Teens. 2012. Web. 29 July 2012. P. 1 With the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s aim of discussing Ã¢â¬Ëlong-termÃ¢â¬â¢ impacts of marijuana usage, it identifies a reduced mental c apacity to comprehend complexities and coordinate body parts besides increasing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to some genetic diseases. The article also identifies addiction as a health risk factor of marijuana besides increasing a userÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of developing respiratory complications. Similarly, the article reports possibility of drugÃ¢â¬â¢s usage leading to use of other drug as well as its use as a medicine. I plan to use the article to
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Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Nikita Khrushchev & Cuban Missile Crisis - Term Paper Example Cuban Missile Crisis is an important historical event for its relevance to the cold-war era, as it is believed to be the most intense encounter between the then Superpowers, U.S and USSR. Since both countries had a nuclear capability, a direct encounter meant the most cataclysmic war in the history of global politics. For this reason it is important to draw a cause and effect relationship between variables in this context to analyze the important factors causing this event and the outcomes. Historically, most of the accounts presenting the Cuban Missile Crisis and its resolution rhetorically give due credit to the patient and the wisdom of JFK to have resolved the issue in time and avoid nuclear war. Many factors can be identified, for instance, the placement of U.S missiles in Turkey close to the vicinity of Soviet. Similarly, the Bay of Pigs incident caused a threat perception in the mind of Castro and in order to avoid a future attack, he sought assistance from the Soviets. Also, another reason can be understood in terms of the balance of power and the ambition of the Soviets to represent a superior vision in the world regarding the power and the image of the Soviet. Thus, as a result of these, along with many other factors Soviets placed Middle Range Ballistic Missiles in Cuba which stimulated the threat perception within the minds of the decision makers in the U.S. Consequently, JFK along with his advisors explored all available options to resolve the crisis, and agreed upon the option of the Naval Blockade, which they labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"QuarantineÃ¢â¬ which continued for 13 days.... Nevertheless, in my view, Khrushchev should equally be appraised, as he also took the matter very seriously and patiently communicated his terms and conditions to JFK. Thus, without appraising Khrushchev, even Castro, for their efforts in this regard the rhetoric remains incomplete. To analyze the event, its historical context needs to be discussed in detail. In this regard, the various long-term as well as short term objectives of the Missile deployment in Cuba by the Soviets can be studied, which will help us analyze the causes behind the event. The historical context of the event can be traced back to the U2 incident which occurred in May 1960, when U.S sent a spy plane into the vicinity of Soviet Union, which was both a breach in the security of the territory of the U.S.S.R, and a cause of building a trust deficit. Even after this event, despite the pressure from the hard liners, Khrushchev managed to stay calm and kept indicating his intentions of maintaining peace between the s uperpowers1. Preceding this dangerous event was the Bay of Pigs accounts which again proved to draw a line between the superpowers. In 1961, U.S made an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro`s government in Cuba which eventually failed. U.S trained and triggered some Cuban rebels to overthrow Fidel in an operation, however the operation immensely failed. This led towards the shattering of the image of the U.S in the world, and it further boosted the confidence of the Soviets which encouraged them to take this step. 2Also, this event was an indication of the interest of U.S in Cuba which indicated that U.S fears that Cuba can later turn out to be problematic for the U.S. Also, U.S later posed various sanctions over Cuba which
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Monday, November 18, 2019
Theology - Essay Example Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s discourse traces a connection between civilization and religion as an illusion. As such, at the beginning of the book he raised a critique on civilization by claiming that civilization does not intend to effect the just distribution of wealth extracted from nature but that it intends to perpetuate the current distribution of wealth and the status of human interrelationship (Freud, 1989:4-5). In this context, Freud raises the concept that although civilization is plagued with problems because it seeks to curtail the satisfaction of human instinct, it is useful for humanity to create a communal relationship because it lessens the uncertainty, cruelty and control of Nature and Fate over human life. As such, it can be impugned that human civilization is a tool whose Ã¢â¬Å"principal task Ã¢â¬ ¦, its actual raison dÃ ªtre, is to defend us against natureÃ¢â¬ (Freud, 1989:14). In this framework, the humanization of nature and fate is undertaken and is deemed inst rumental in removing the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of nature and rob nature of its capacity to destroy and annihilate humanity. Thus, this process pave for the reenactment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self as Ã¢â¬Å"a small child, in relation to ones parents. One had reason to fear them, and especially ones father; and yet one was sure of his protection against the dangers one knewÃ¢â¬ (Freud, 1989:16). Within this paradigm, man utilizes the gods with a threefold tasks: Ã¢â¬Å"they must exorcize the terrors of nature, they must reconcile men to the cruelly of Fate, particularly as it is shown in death, and they must compensate them for the sufferings and privations which a civilized life in common has imposed on themÃ¢â¬ (Freud, 1989:17). Being such, manÃ¢â¬â¢s continued helplessness is assuaged by the protection given to them by the gods. Moreover, since the medieval period, manÃ¢â¬â¢s relation with the gods has been transformed in the reenactment of the loving relationship between the son and the father.
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Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Shehri Language In Southern Oman English Language Essay The UNESCO atlas of endangered languages has listed that Shehri Language is at risk of disappearing, based on Johnston (1982). The aim of this paper is to investigate at which level of endangerment the language is. This study has been conducted based on interviews with representatives from each part of the country, and distribution of a questionnaire to females and males Shehri speakers. Basically, the research has discovered that the Shehri language is a very rich language [linguistically] and need to be studied to discover all those issues as a part of the Omani culture diversity. Moreover, the results had shown that the Shehri language face a remarkable threatened starting from the next door culture, and ends with the educational philosophy. Support and encouragement need to be done by the government to support such studies to revive the language. The Shehri speakers are and still proud of their language and next generation should continue with those manners. Key words Language death, language revive, language revilaitaztion, language change, language and culture. Chapter One Introduction This dissertation is about the Shehri language in Dhofar. It aims to investigate the language form a sociolinguistics prospectives. As it is considered as severely endangers by the UNESCO we are going to investigate it by looking the language relationship with culture and surrounding variability. Although, the UNESCO records are clear and fact such a topic is changeable and it could be varied if the language is being recorded over a time and updated. In addition, since this language is not being studied before as endangered, we shall present the history of language and country to make the image clear, because it seems that the name of the language means a lot to the Shehri speakers, and there is a remarkable debate about it. Thus, it might draw the light on what are the reasons for the language death in Southern Oman. Moreover, a short survey on what have been discussed about the language in previous studies before the research body is introduced to address the following questions: Is the shehri language is going to extinct? If so, What are the reasons for this reduction in the number of speakers? What is the best solution to revive the language? After that, the analysis of data and findings will reveal what the study accomplished. Finally, this paper will discuss what might be done and how the revive the Shehri language. The language A Sheharat is a language that is spoken is south of Oman. It is known is the mother-tongue of the people who live in the mountain of Dhofar southern Oman. Moreover, since this language was and still the language of the people in the mountains of Dhofar , people from Salalah the capital of Dhofar call it Jabbali or Jabblat which comes from Jabbal in Arabic which means mountain. Moreover, Higgins (2010: 3) stated that the communist-backed tribal guerrillas controlled the whole of the Jebel Dhofar region (jebel [English spellings vary] is the Arabic word for mountain, hill, or slope). None-Shehri speakers describe the language of its speaker as Jabbalies or Gabbalies. When they say that this language is Jabbali it is due to translating the word Shehar (the origin name of the language which is mountain) into Arabic Jabbal, therefore, they call it Jabbali. According to Hetzron (1997:2) The Jabbali language received many names in the scientific literature, the most common of which being Ãâ¦Ã xauri, Ehkili, Qarawi, Ãâ¦Ã heri. In context, if any person is going to the mountain and he would name it he would say Im going to the mountain Im going to Shehar and in the city language Arabic it is going to be something like Im going to Jabbal. A Shehri (2000) has described his tribe to be the ancient tribe in the South the South Arabian Peninsula claiming that the language is named according to his tribal name, but this study revealed that the name Shehri coming from the name of the mountain in the language itself. In addition, Johnstone (1982) in his introduction was clarifying all those issues as a message from him for the important impact on the language. He stated that Tribal origins mean much less in modern Oman, and the large scale re-settlement has tended to blur these ancient distinctions. The name Jibbali, however, has the advantage that it avoids the mention of the term Shehri, with its tendency to stress old social differences between Dhofar tribes. In this view, This tells us that the different names that we have for the same language are common, because each person is describing it from his culture and language. But there is no doubt that the ancients speakers call it Shehrat or Shehri language. There are some people in Dhofar who do not believe that this is a language. According to them it is an accent or a dialect and the term language is something cannot be describing it. Their assumption comes from the idea that if the language is not written it is an accent, while if we look at the Shehri it is a language that contains it is own phonetics, vocabulary and grammar. At the same time it is not a part from any other language until now so they can call it an accent for X language. In fact, the Shehri have three different accents in Dhofar. This is due to the geographical variation in South of Oman. The most known part is the central part since it is closer to the city Salalah Johnstone (1981). Moreover Peterson (2004:256) and also Johnstone (1981) divided the mountains of Dhofar into three main areas; Jabal al-Qara overlooks Salalah at the centre, while the remote and largely inaccessible Jabal Samhan dominates the east, and the equally forbidding and barren Jabal Qamar commands the west. This might lead us the Shehri variant is based on those main inhabited places in Dhofar came from. The number of Shehri speakers is 5,000 according to Johnstone (1975, 94). This is taken during a war in Dhofar which force many people from the mountains to deported to Yemen as the closest country to Dhofar as looking for refuge from the war and a better place to lead their war since the government controlled the whole area in Dhofar. After that, in 1993 according to Omani national census the number of people who are living in the mountain is 25,000. At that time, the Shehri language was the first language in the mountains of Dhofar. On the other hand, Al Aghbari (2011) reported that the number of Shehri speakers are more than 147,000 people. Since the Omani Census are not counting the number of speakers of each language in the country; the number of Shehri speakers are not being officially known yet. AL-Shehri (2008) claim that the Shehri language consists of 33 letters with 6 extra phonemic sounds which leave the language with 39 phonemes. On the other hand, if we look at the letter and how they sound we might feel that they are similar to Arabic. Because it is not a written language [yet] people from other tribes and places in Dhofar tries to speak Shehri and at the same time they are using the same Arabic letters that they are used to. At this stage, the Shehri language starts to change and nowadays people hardly use the 6 extra sounds and replacing them with the normal Arabic phonemes. This doesnt mean that the Shehri language is a partial form Arabic. The vocabulary and language structures in Shehri are totally different, but the sounds might be the same since they are sharing the same area. The history of the country Dhofar was a very rich country in the trading market with other ancient nations. According to Zarins (1997:51) Dhofar province is the Atlantis of the Sand and speculated that it might have a trading center in southern of Oman. Moreover, he continues saying that Herodotus, Pliny the Elder, Strabo, and other ancient authors, though not specifically mentioning Ubar, gave brief accounts of cities in southern Arabia that market resins of frankincense and myrrh trees. While it is certain that the people of the Dhofar area grew rich trading these commodities, it would appear that the city of Ubar was an Arabian Nights fantasy. Furthermore, Dharmananda, (2003) confirms that the Myrrh and frankincense trading market reached china before 973 A.D as a medicine and also, in Egypt for embalming the bodies of the Pharaohs. Besides, Dharmananda (2003) believed that Myrrh and frankincense, traded throughout the Middle East at least since 1500 B.C. Therefore, it might be seen now clearly that the his tory of the area south of Oman was famous and strong enough to contend the Egyptian and the Chains empires. Such a nation must have a language, power, economic and financial system to compete such nations,otherwise the south Arabian Peninsula is going to be a an Egyptian or Chinese colony. After those glory days in southern the Arabian Peninsula lots of changes happen to ancient people. In terms of the economy and their statues worldwide as well. Recently, before the 1970, Oman was ruled by Sultan Said Bin Taimor (1932-1970) in which many people do not have the right to be educated, receiving medical care or even travel from Oman without his direct permission. This was the Sultans policy that results in Rebellion in Dhofar from 1968-1975. Dhofar was the capital of the south and the modern part of it. The Sultan of Oman, Said bin Tamur, ruled like a feudal lord: No Omani was allowed to leave the country, or even his home village, without the Sultans explicit permission. He banned all symbols of the decadent twentieth century From medical drugs and spectacles to book and radios and he flogged his subjects for adopting Western dress Ladwig (2008:66). Moreover, Higgins (2010:3) stated there were no roads, no schools, no hospitals, and no development of water resources for home or agricultural use. This was the situation all over Oman but with some emphasizes on Dhofar as the special place for the Sultan Said bin Taimor. According to Ladwig (2008:66) Dhofar was the Sultans personal domain, where he resided in seclusion year round, despite the fact that the nations capital was 500 miles north of Muscat. Although he took a Dhofari wife, who was the mother of his son, the Sultan disliked and distrusted his Dhofari subjects, the Jebelis most of all. It is clearly seen that all those issues happened since Sultan Said Bin Taimor taken the rule of the country made the situation in Oman and especially in Dhofar difficult to be controlled. Therefore, the Rebellion movement started from Dhofar (1968) with the help of the Soviets and China. Until, 1970 when the Sultan Qaboos the Only son of Sultan Said bin Taimor take the rule of the country and start to fight the counterinsurgency in southern of Oman, and make the promises to rebuild the country again. My people, my brothers, yesterday it was complete darkness and with the help of God, tomorrow will be a new dawn in Muscat, Oman and its people (Sultan Qaboos first speech 1970). According to Gulvady (2009) The Sultan Qaboos government has focused on economic development. He first addressed infrastructure needs, such as building roads and highways, as well as education. He is now focusing on sustainable development, diversification, industrialization, and privatization. The schools were built with a great care; hospitals, Universities and colleges to ensure that each person in Oman get the chance to be learnt and to be educated. Certainly, according the Ministry of Education (2012) the number of schools rose from 3 schools in 1970 teaching the Holy Quran and Arabic language only, to 1053 schools by 2010 teaching modern subjects as Mathematics, Sciences, Arabic, English, History, and Religion. In addition, Universities and colleges were established all over Oman. The main University is the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat. Also, the biggest cities in Oman were provided with an applied sciences college and a technical college as well. Therefore, the use of Arabic language gets greater; while the Shehri language got a few chances to be practiced without being taught. To conclude, the past of Oman was dark and full of blood from the Rebellion movement against Sultan Qabooss father Said bin Taimor. All those promises by the Sultan Qaboos has been achieved in 40 years is something difficult and almost impossible. Thank to God and the hands of the Omani generations who learnt and trained under the government of Oman this path was easier.Now Omani students can be found in the world famous Universities studying and learning to continuing what the Sultan Qaboos has begun. The new regime, though undoubtedly good for the people, did lead to the decline of the Shehri language. Therefore, it might be worth to reorganize the Educational Philosophy in Oman. Chapter Two Literature review: During the last decades lots of changes happened to Oman, precisely Dhofari people and their language. The changes appear in the vocabulary choice, pronunciation, structure, words are disappearing and not being used. Marshall (2004:1) claims that investigators have shown renewed interest in the loss of non-standard varieties and the process of standardization. This has given important insights into the types of geographical area, social network, and social group in which language changes originate and mechanism involves in the process of diffusion. In addition, McMahon (1994:8) assured that we should never lose sight of the fact that language are spoken by people for purposes of communication; consequently, speakers change languages, although that is not to say that they are necessarily conscious of doing so, or that they intend to make changes. Perhaps speakers of any language hold the responsibility toward the changes happened at their time, but also the political decisions made by the country could play a positive or negative role. Moreover, considering the fact that the Shehri language is not a written language this risk gets greater. McCabe (2011:262) explains that There is no clear reason why languages change as extensively as they do; there are several explanations which cover various aspects of change, in the case of sound change we have seen that ease of articulation has historically been a motivator. With respect to sound change, it is important to mention the impact that the written language has had on language change. Moreover, a tremendous change took place during the last 40 years in Oman , generally, and Dhofar region result in having a new generation which differs from the elderly people in the way of thinking, learning, speaking and everything. McCabe (2011:263) assured that often young people use language differently than their parents, in the same way that they dress differently and listen to different music, in order to create an identity which sets them apart from their parents generation. Taking into account that any changes might be referred back to it after a time if it is written, but if it was only a spoken language in the community this means that there is no source for the language except those young generations. Besides, Beard (2004) believes that studying a language change consists of two parts, internal and external approach. According to him an internal approach to studying language change looks at such areas as vocabulary, spelling, meaning of words, grammar and compares usag e in old text with stage found todayBut if we look at the external aspects of this text, viewing it more as a social document, it seems to belong to different age Bread (2004:4). The Shehri language has been discussed in some books, Journals, TV interviews, and dissertations. According many people in this study lots of this information was presented wrongly. Many of them might be a personal believe or just a way to relate this language to their own purposes. For example, Ali AL Shehri books where he claims that this language is related to them as a tribe was totally unacceptable for people from other tribes in Dhofar. According to Al Shehri (2000:42) the Shahara tribes have preserved the most ancient Arab language (the Shehri), the traditions, folklore, proverbs, names of ancient tribes, ancient God names and much other ancient Arab culture. This assumption made by Ali made other people argue with him as relating the language to his tribe. At the same time, as other tribes and the government did not agree with what Ali mention in his books; none of his books were published in Oman to ovoid sedition between the people in Dhofar. Then, in (2005) Mohammed Al Mashani studied the language comparing it to languages such as the Arabic, the Old Yemeni language (Saba), and the modern dialects in Yemen, claiming that the Shehri language is the language of Hamyer the old kingdom southern the Arab Peninsula. Mohammed also brings a new name for the language and named with The Modern Hamyer Dhofari Tongue. It is clearly seen that the name of the language became the main issue for scholars and the people in Dhofar. Other studies such as Hayward et. Al. (1988), Johnstone (1972) (1980a) (1980a) (1981), Al Hakli (2008), Al-Shahri (1994), Hayward, Al-TabÃâ¦Ã «ki (1988), Hofstede (1998) Makhashen (2009) focused their studies on the origin of the language and its people, and the grammatical aspects of the language only. This will provide a foundation for any research in the future to be built and based on them, if they were true and still have the same findings which is a topic need to be investigated again. However, moving from the battle of the name of the Shehri language and taking the UNESCOs records about languages that are in danger of disappearing; the Shehri language might not transform fully from the elderly generation to the younger ones. According to the UNESCO atlas of the most endangered languages (table 1) this stage is severely endangered. In other words, it means that language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves UNESCO (2010). This leaves the language with only two stages from being extinct. Degree of endangerment Intergenerational Language Transmission Safe The language is spoken by all generations; intergenerational transmission is uninterrupted >> not included in the Atlas Vulnerable Vulnerable Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., Home) Definitely endangered Definitely endangered Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home Severely endangered Severely endangered The language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves Critically endangered Critically endangered The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently Extinct Extinct There are no speakers left >> included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s Table Degree of endangerment Adapted from Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger. Moreover, Al Hakli (2008) made a mini-dictionary for Shehri language joining the Shehri words to their meaning in Arabic. But until now the number of speakers is still declining. Which means writing a dictionary was not the solution to revive the language at this stage. Therefore, the questions pointed out to look for the solution and to investigate why the number of the speakers is declined. According to Romine and Nettle (2000:7) language shift and death occur as a response to pressures of various types-social, cultural, economic, and even military-on a community. Furthermore, Harrison (2007: 8) stresses that language death typically begins with political or social discrimination against a language or its speakers. This may take the form of official state politics to suppress speech, or it may be benign neglect. Therefore, it might be the reason that there are other variables controlling the number of speakers of this language. Mufwene (2006:2) stated that language death starts when speakers consulted with each other and decided collectively to shift suddenly to another language. This leads us to the beginning and taking in our consideration that Dhofar region has been benediction with the revolutionary movement by the Sultan Qaboos and many schools, Hospitals, Airports were built in a short time. Therefore, the Arabic language takes place in their houses and daily life. The new generation was introduced to schools that delivers everything to them in Arabic. However, many families had migrated from the mountain to the city to look for a better way of living and a job that helps them to overcome the hardship of life in their villages. Peoples language might be affected by the surrounding environment. Also, the language that is nearby lots of variables that might influence it such as economy, geography, the power of the next door language are at more risk of being disappeared. Moreover, language shift and dea th can begin by start learning the next door language. For example: The Kwegu language in southwest Ethiopia is spoken by 500 people only Lydall (1982:22). In addition, according to the UNSECO world atlas the number of Kwegu speakers declines in 1998 to reach 103 speaker only. Furthermore, Dimmendaal (1989:17) mention some of the daily activities practiced by the Kwegu ancient as they exchange honey with the overlord groups in the same area so they will be able to liveKwegu speak both their own language and the language of the Musri and Bodi while the latter tend not to speak Kwegu. So, learning other groups language was the effect of such discrimination in the society, therefore, their first language [Kwegu] will have less chances to be used. On this view, the Shehri speakers are shifting from their language to Arabic and this is due to many facts already mentioned above. When the next generation does not believe in their language and start to shift toward a new language which is stronger than their language, obviously, no one will speak with it and it is only a matter of years until the Shehri speakers reduction end with it is extinct. Dimmendaal (1989:18) points out that it is only when they start interacting with neighbouring groups whose cultures are viewed as more prestigious that their own language became particularly threatened The Weyto probably gave up their earlier language this way. Darmon (2010:2) argued that the Weyto Because the Weyto people do not own lands, they are living in extremely precarious conditions. They build their huts wherever the government allows them to, knowing that they can be asked to move at any time Without professing to be Muslim, they are usually not recognized as true Muslims by oth ers, maybe because some of them keep on believing in spirits associated with paganism. Therefore, Darmon thinks that such feelings towards your own language might lead you to give up using it and shift it to a stronger language in the society. Eventually, this language shift will result in language death within years. The language death is when a language disappears and becomes extinct. In other words, when people stop using their language or forced to do so. There are types for language death cited by Tsitsipis (1989:182) first, sudden death: the language disappears because almost all of its speakers die or killed (example: Tasmanian). Secondly, Radical Death when language loses is rapid and usually due to severe political repression, often with genocide, to the extent that speakers stop speaking the language out of self defense, a survival strategy for example: Languages of El Salvador. Then, Gradual Death which is due to a gradual shift to the dominant language in language-contact situations. Finally, the Bottom-to-top Death, where that language is lost in small steps first like homes and families and then moved when the government stop using it, it is the opposite on the Top-Bottom language death. Regardless to the reason for the language shift it is clearly seen that it is only a matter of ti me until language shift become language extinction. To conclude, it might be more beneficial for reviving endangered languages that writers and scholars studying the Shehri language should keep their focus first at the language itself rather than fighting against each other in bringing a new name each time. Since the Shehri language is not documented yet, it only exists in the peoples mind, therefore, we are losing a huge amount of the language and country heritage and culture each time a person dies. As what Harrison describes when we lose a language, we lose a culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art Harrison (2007:7). Chapter Three Methodology This part of the paper presents the methodology and how it had been designed to accomplish the aims and goals. First, this section will clarify the problem clearly. Then, the types of data, participants, questionnaires and interviews are going to be discussed separately. The problem Since the Shehri language is being listed officially by the UNESCO as [severely endangered] this research will be conducted to investigate if the Shehri language speakers are really under the risk of abandoning speaking their own language are not. Firstly, by looking at the number of speakers of the language and to see how it varies from the past. Then, through looking at the changes that happened to the language. According to Professor Miyaoka the director of The Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Project Particularly in case of moribund and isolated languages with speakers rapidly diminishing in number, of which there are quite a few in the Pacific Rim, we are obliged to emphasize documentation with good and minute analyses which could be achieved only with the help of speakers having deep linguistic insights. The Shehri is a language that is not written yet or documented officially. Therefore, when each person of the Shehri speakers dies an amount of the language goes with him. Similarly, the Arabic language was not written until people start to write it after the death of Prophet Mohammed in order to preserve the holy Quran from being changed and distorts. Before this stage the Arabic language was only exist in their minds and transformed from a generation to another by communication with each other. In the Shehri context, the Shehri language is not written, not fully transformed from a generation to another, people start to avoid using it and preferred to use English or Arabic to show how they are educated. Nettle and Romaine (2000:5) insist that language might be regarded as an activity, system of communication between human beings. A language is not a self-sustaining entity. It can only exist where there is a community to speak and transmit it. In addition, immigration from the mountain to the city provides a space for the two cultures to merge. Thus, some of the young speakers of the language are not able to speak or even understand it. This will result in having a new generation of Shehri speakers that are not able to speak their language. Nettle and Romaine (2000:4) assured that languages not passed on to the younger generation will eventually die out. Since the Shehri newer generation are not able to speak the language, therefore, the language is not going to transmit and will extinct. Types of data The Data collection part was separated into two main parts; the first part was to update the information about the language. Moreover, to explore and discover why this language is not being studied yet. Also, the main part of this section was to see if such a kind of researches is going to be accepted by the Shehri speakers and tribe leader or not. Since, there has been an assumption that the reduction of speakers outstanding for not having a written form of the language; this assumption is being abandoned with the Halkis basic dictionary were a space is being provided for the Arabic speakers in Dhofar and Oman to learn some vocabulary and sentence in Shehri. Therefore, this result leads us to wonder about this continues reduction in the Sheahri speakers. Through meetings with scholars such as Dr. Ali AL Shehri and Khalid AL Maashani, both are Sahehari native speakers, they ensure that the abstention of the new generation is clearly seen these days in their daily life conversation and usage. This leads us to the second assumption of this study. Second part, was the main data collection in which the aim was: First, to see the what extend the Shehri speakers use their language?. Then, do they find any difficulty in understanding old peoples language? Finally, are they aware that their language is at risk of extinction? At the same time to see what they might recommend for their language. To make the aim of this paper more achievable the questions were made easier to the Shehries to answer by shortening the questions and translate them into Arabic. As what Harrison discovers in dealing with endangered languages in Australia Charlie was not a talkative man, and most of our questions got monosyllabic answers: yeah or no. But once he got to talking, Charlie also shared stories of this place -learned from his father- of the Turkey Dreaming and of the Rainbow Serpent (Harrison: 2010:98). Therefore, involving their language could provide a better communication environment in this research. Since they are not used to such studies which was one of the obstacles of gathering the information from them. Moreover, such a research must consider respecting the traditional rules in the Dhofar were females are not allowed to have a face to face conversation with strangers. Therefore, some volunteers from various tribes in Dhofar helped by giving the permission to distribute the questionnaire among their families as a part of their wish to revive the language. This issue but this research at risk of having unreliable data. So, the research methodology needs to look for a strategy to make the data more valid and reliable. This research conducted using both methods of data quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative data are represented in the questionnaire answers and responds, while the qualitative data is taken from interviewing the participant and the answers from the open-ended questionnaire answers in this study. Such kind of data collection has been described by (Jick 1979) in which he looks at using two or more methods of data collection can be called triangulation. According to Jick (1979:1) It is largely a vehicle for cross validation when two or more distinct methods are found to be congruent and yield comparable data. In other words, using such methods might be the reason to accomplish the validity of the research. In addition, the research will get the chance to look at each part of his study from more than one point. In addition, Olsen (2004) assured that triangulation is defined as the mixing of data or methods so that diverse viewpoints or standpoints cast light upon a topic. Considering the advantages and it is drawbacks combining the two methods might help the researcher as to make his own conclusions about a topic especially if we are talking about sociological issues. In addition, Spicer (2012:484) stated that it is an approach to combining two or more quantitative and/or qualitative methods in addressing a research question in order to cross-check results for consistency and to offset any bias of single research method. In this context, this research tries to use the triangulation method so it could reach the best, real, and representative data by using both quantitative qualitative data and making use of previous studies about the Shehri l
Posted by Unknown at 1:07 AM
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Bigger Thomas, the protagonist of Native Son, by Richard Wright, expresses the role of a poor, uneducated black man. Bigger lived in a time where racism was very common in the society. Wright shows us through him, how bad the situation was. Due to his lack of education, Bigger had to work menial labor. Thus, he was forced to live in a one room apartment with his family. He felt trapped all his life, resenting, hating, and fearing the whites, whom he felt controlled his life. He views white people as a collective, overpowering force that tells him where to live, where to work, and what to do. The main focus of Wright?s novel is to show the effects of racism on one?s mind. Bigger has lived a life defined by the fear and anger he feels toward whites for as long as he can remember. Perhaps that is what leads him to do the crimes that he does. Bigger develops the main action of the book when he kills Mary Dalton. In fact, it makes him feel as though his life actually has a meaning. He feels as if he has the power to assert himself against the whites. Wright does not try to show Bigger as a hero, because of his brutality and capacity for violence which is extremely disturbing, especially in the scene where he shoves Mary Dalton?s dead body in to the burning furnace in order to hide it. Wright?s main point is that Bigger becomes a brutal killer just because the dominant white culture fears that he will. By fearing whites, Bigger only contributes to the cycle of racism and fuels it even more. However, after meeting Max, he begins to redeem himself, actually recognizing whites as individuals for the first time in his life. But the social injustice does not end there, after killing Mary Dalton, Bigger goes to Bessie, his girlfriend and tells her everything. Recognizing that Bessie might tell anyone, Bigger kills her too and is than arrested by the police. There, the injustice takes place. When Bigger was arrested, and jailed, he received constant harassment. He only faced two choices, either to confess, or be lynched by the white crowed. Bigger knew deep down, that he was going to die anyhow. But Max, his lawyer, reminded him that he could still win the case and be free. Another example of the injustice is that when Bigger was eventually caught, the pubic and the media press automatically determine that he is guilty of not only killing Mary, but also rapping her before killing her.
Posted by Unknown at 1:37 PM
Monday, November 11, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËNewly industrialised countries have been, and continue to be, the driving force of globalisationÃ¢â¬â¢ To what extent do you agree with this statement Globalisation can be seen as the increased flow of goods, services and information across countries, and it is driven by rapid technological growth and increased connectivity between countries of the world. It also establishes and maintains economic and political relations between these countries. Some of the factors that have affected globalisation include technological innovation as it had made transport and communication around the world easier, trade has also played an important role in encouraging globalisation. Trade between countries in the developed world and the developing world has specifically been the biggest driving force of globalisation. Newly industrialised countries or NICÃ¢â¬â¢s are countries whose economies have not yet reached first world economic status but their economic growth are still increasing more than other developing countries. NICÃ¢â¬â¢s are switching their current agriculture-based economy into a more industrialised, urban economy. Current NICs include China, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. The average growth rate between these countries is approximately 7.6% compared to the world average of 3.7%. The first group of NICÃ¢â¬â¢s came from the Asia area, they included Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore. They called these the Asian Tigers. The Asian Tigers were notable for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7% a year) and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s. By the 21st century, all four have developed into advanced and high-income economies. There are several factors that make Newly Industrialised countries the driving force of globalisation. Firstly, most newly industrialised countries have a large population; this makes the countries more attractive for investment as these countries have lots of cheap labour. Therefore, these countries seem more attractive to TNCÃ¢â¬â¢s as they can make more profits when the cost of labour is cheap. A Transnational Corporation or a TNC is a privately owned company that is based in 2 or more countries. They take advantage of the NICÃ¢â¬â¢s cheap labour and large growth rate. For instance Toyota is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading car manufacturers and is the third largest in the world. Although based in Japan, Toyota produces most of its cars in its transplants in Georgetown, Kentucky, and Burnaston and Derbyshire.
Posted by Unknown at 2:38 AM
Friday, November 8, 2019
Definition and Examples of Terms of Address A term of address is a word, phrase, name, or title (or some combination of these) used to address someone in writing or while speaking. Terms of address are also known as address terms or forms of address. Nicknames, pronouns, pejoratives, and terms of endearment all qualify. Key Takeaways: Terms of Address A term of address is any word, phrase, name, or title used to address another person.Terms of address may be formal (Doctor, The Honorable, His Excellence) or informal (honey, dear, you). Formal terms of address are often used to recognize academic or professional accomplishments, while informal terms of address are often used to show affection. A term of address may be friendly (dude, sweetheart), unfriendly (You idiot!), neutral (Jerry, Marge), respectful (Your honor), disrespectful (buddy, said with sarcasm), or comradely (My friends). Although a term of address commonly appears at the beginning of a sentence, as in Doctor, Im not convinced that this treatment is working, it may also be used between phrases or clauses. For example: Im not convinced, doctor, that this treatment is working. Related terms includeÃ direct address,Ã vocative, andÃ honorific. Direct address is just what it sounds like. The speaker is talking directly to the person mentioned, as in the above conversation with the doctor. A vocative is the term of address used, such as the word doctor in the previous example. An honorific is a term used to show respect and comes before a name, such as Mr., Ms., the Reverend, the Honorable, and the like, as in, Mr. Smith, Ms. Jones, the Reverend Christian, and the judge, the Honorable J.C. Johnson. In formal contexts, terms of address may sometimes be used to indicate that a person has more power or authority than another. In those cases, terms of address can be used to show respect for or submission to another. Formal Terms of Address Formal terms of address are typically used in professional contexts such as academia, government, medicine, religion, and the military. In the United States, common examples include: Professor: Used to address a member of a school or universitys faculty.His/Her Excellency: Used to address the ambassadors of foreign governments.The Honorable: Used to address American ambassadors along with U.S. judges and justices.His/Her Royal Highness: Used to address members of a royal family, including British princes and princesses.Doctor: Used to address a physician who has obtained a medical degree or someone with a Ph.D.Captain: Used to address U.S. naval commanders regardless of rank; any officer who has been placed in charge of a vessel may be addressed this way.His Holiness: Used to address both the Pope of the Catholic Church and the Dalai Lama. Most formal titles, both in speaking and writing, precede a persons name. Those that follow a name include the honorary Esquire and academic suffixes that indicate possession of a degree, such as John Smith, Ph.D. Members of religious orders also use suffixes, such as John Smith, O.F.M., which indicates membership in the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (the Order of Friars Minor). Informal Forms of Address Informal terms of address are used outside of professional contexts and include terms such as nicknames, pronouns, and terms of endearment. Unlike professional forms of address, which are typically used to recognize a persons authority or accomplishments, informal terms of address are typically used to express affection or closeness. In the United States, common examples include: Honey: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or child.Dear: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or close friend.Babe/Baby: Used to show affection for a romantic partner.Bud/Buddy: Used to show affection for a close friend or child (sometimes used in a pejorative sense). In English, informal titles are sometimes used to show respect. Unlike formal titles, these do not indicate any level of professional or educational accomplishment: Mr.: Used to address both married and unmarried men.Mrs.: Used to address married women.Miss: Used to address unmarried women and girls.Ms.: Used to address women when marital status is unknown. The simple pronoun you can also be used as a term of address, i.e. Hey you, hows it going? In English, you is always informal. Some other languages, however, use multiple pronouns, each indicating a certain degree of formality. Japanese, for example, has many different pronouns that can be used between people depending on their relationship, and Spanish has both familiar and formal pronouns used as terms of address. Historically, terms of address have been used to emphasize class differences between those who have power and those who do not. The asymmetric use of names andÃ address termsÃ is often a clear indicator of a power differential, writes linguist Ronald Wardhaugh: School classrooms are almost universally good examples;Ã JohnÃ andÃ SallyÃ are likely to be children andÃ MissÃ orÃ Mr. SmithÃ to be teachers. For a long time in the southern states of the United States, whites used naming and addressing practices to put blacks in their place. Hence the odious use ofÃ BoyÃ to address black males. The asymmetric use of names also was part of the system. Whites addressed blacks by their first names in situations which required them to use titles, or titles and last names if they were addressing whites. There was a clear racial distinction in the process. Sources Straus, Jane. The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: the Mysteries of Grammar and Punctuation Revealed. John Wiley Sons, 2006.Wardhaugh, Ronald. Understanding English Grammar: a Linguistic Approach. Blackwell, 2007.
Posted by Unknown at 8:36 PM
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Symbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ Essays Symbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ Paper Symbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ Paper Mary Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor was an influential American writer who was born in 1925, writing two novels, thirty-two short stories and numerous essays and reviews. Her life was complicated by a fifteen-year battle with lupus and she died at the age of thirty-nine. Her philosophy on fiction writing was that it should first and foremost be based in the solidly concrete world (Olson, 42). This is the essence of how she breathed life into her work. She explored symbolism and deeper themes as well, but they came after the concrete details. Some persistent symbolic themes in her writing include farms, small towns, hallucinations or hallucinations, the south, violence, prejudice, self-discovery, and, her most common theme, religion and the Catholic faith (Irving, 113). OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor uses recurring themes and symbolism in all of her stories, none more so that Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to Find. Ã¢â¬ These symbols are hidden in the prose and unlocking them adds to the depth, influence and impact of the story. The prevalent symbolism used pertains to the Catholic faith, Jesus and judgment. She also uses color and character to tie in the idea of the changing times and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s disintegration. Everything from the name of the town they are seeking, the forest and the journey itself are used by in this story to represent a deeper truth. They explore the innermost struggle of man and the quest for self-identity and understanding and the need for a person to face their own reality by delving into their character rather than the place they believe they hold in the society and the concrete world. The characters of the grandmother and the Misfit symbolize different aspects of human self-awareness as well as the idea of Jesus, redemption and hypocrisy. Their depiction as symbols instead of solidly real individuals is evident in their names Ã¢â¬â they are not given one. Instead they are referred to by the place they hold in society, the Ã¢â¬Å"grandmotherÃ¢â¬ , the Ã¢â¬Å"Misfit,Ã¢â¬ which is more important than who they are as people. The grandmother is the sinner, so blinded by her own self-perceived morality and social identity that she is blinded to her own faults and therefore fails to repent. Her faith is all about appearances rather than sincerity, such as her selection for her attire and the reason for it, Her collars and cuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace and at her neckline she had pinned a purple spray of cloth violets containing a sachet. In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, 118). The Misfit, while the villain of the tale, sits as judge and jury. He is the only one in the story that contemplates the deeper truth to manÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, indicating his contemplative nature and the need for man to question their existence, Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus was the only One that ever raised the dead . . . He shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done it . . . If He did what He said, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to do but throw away everything and follow Him, and if He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing for you to do but enjoy the few minutes you got leftÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, 132). While the grandmother fails to recognize her own faults, the Misfit knows not only his own failings but also those of others, indicating the all-seeing eye of Jesus (Bonney, 351). When she is left alone with the Misfit, after several tries, she manages to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus, Jesus,Ã¢â¬ meaning that the Misfit should pray, yet it came out as a curse. This statement is evidence that she secretly blames God and Christ for her dilemma. The Misfit on the other hand does not believe in a higher power even as he symbolizes one. Additionally, the Misfit originally chose the pseudonym he holds because he believed he was punished excessively for his perceived crime, which he does not remember. This is similar to how Jesus died for the sins of all mankind, as He did not have any of his own. The grandmother brings up Jesus and prayer because she is trying to find a way out so she hopes to instill grace and regret in the Misfit; she does so to save her own life rather than because she believed: she is a hypocrite. After recognizing the MisfitÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, much as one recognizes the presence of God at the time of judgment, the grandmother devotes herself to trying to escape the net she is caught in rather than in the act of prayer. She even denies Jesus, even calling the Misfit Jesus, in an attempt to stave off her own demise and offers counterfeit affection to the Misfit in order to persuade him to relent, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Why youÃ¢â¬â¢re one of my babies . . . one of my own children! Ã¢â¬â¢ She reached out and touched himÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, 132). The Misfit recognized the falseness of her actions and shot her through the chest, much as Jesus knows when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s belief is true or if they merely seem faithful. While the grandmother has a greater capacity for grace than the Misfit does, she fails to fulfill it (Bandy, 110). The familyÃ¢â¬â¢s journey itself is a symbol of manÃ¢â¬â¢s walk of faith. The grandmother does not wish to go to Florida, does not wish to walk the correct path and stay true to her beliefs. When her requests are ignored and she is forced to travel to Florida instead of Tennessee, she dresses it up in artifice rather than sincerity. At the first opportunity, she attempts to detour the family to another road, using persuasion and deception to generate supporters, she steers others away from the path of God as well. This is their undoing as it places them directly in the way of tragedy. Here too, the Misfit symbolizes Jesus. As Jesus knows when a person is unfaithful, the Misfit judges and punishes the family for their lack of faith (Bandy, 111). At the beginning of the story, the children play the game of identifying shapes in the clouds. This ties into the use of symbols to represent the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s superficial faith. Clouds are ever changing decorations of the sky, much as she Ã¢â¬ËdecoratesÃ¢â¬â¢ herself in lady like apparel in order to portray an image that she does not feel. The clouds present an appearance of one thing but are in fact quite different. After the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s accident, the Misfit comments that the sky is without sun or clouds: the artifice has been stripped away as well as the guide for the grandmother to follow Ã¢â¬â the sun, which is always present in the day, is identified as absent here. The Misfit sees the truth of the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s character and does not allow her to hide behind false pretenses or recover her lost path; she is to be punished for her crime. Here, the Misfit is the vengeful God and the sinner is not so innocent. Rather that symbolizing innocence, as children often do in works of fiction, in Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to Find,Ã¢â¬ they represent the aspects of life that one cannot control and the truth that those events hold. In the beginning of the story, as the grandmother attempts to dissuade the family from going to Florida and to go instead to Tennessee, John Wesley asks the grandmother why she does not just stay home. June Star replies Ã¢â¬Å"She wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay home to be queen for a day. Ã¢â¬ Only June Star recognizes this aspect of her grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and is forthright enough to mention. Throughout the story, June Star speaks her truth honestly and openly, though her opinions are high-minded and prejudicial. The Misfit mentions his unease with children, saying that they make him nervous. He recognizes their capacity for unpredictable behavior, as the road of life is unpredictable, and asks his companions to rein them in. There are many symbols of death through the story, particularly toward the end of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s journey. The name of the town the grandmother is seeking is called Toombsboro, clearly calling to mind the image of a tomb. She is inadvertently seeking death. The dark and heavy forest near where the family has their accident is a symbol of death as well, with its shadows, hidden threats and unknowable reality. Indeed, five members of the family find their end in these woods. The car driven by the Misfit and his two companions is described as Ã¢â¬Å"hearse-like;Ã¢â¬ a very blatant symbol of death and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to what waits beyond. Another symbol used throughout the story is the color red, used to represent the fact that society is changing. Red is the most used color in the work, creating a link for each character and event to follow. The grandmother and Red Sammy, the restaurant owner, reminisce together on better times, revealing their own prejudice on how things have changed. This identifies Red Sammy as a symbol of those changing times. When she later remembers that the plantation is in another state, she goes Ã¢â¬Å"red. Ã¢â¬ This ties her embarrassment to Red Sammy Ã¢â¬â red and Red Ã¢â¬â and their discussion of the good old days. She had failed to recall them correctly and she was deeply embarrassed. Later, when the men get out of the car, it is revealed that one of the occupants was wearing a red sweatshirt, another tie to red. The third manÃ¢â¬â¢s ankles were also described as red as he was climbing down the embankment and the MisfitÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are described as Ã¢â¬Å"red-rimmed. Ã¢â¬ It also symbolizes anger as the grandmother is angered by the fact that the times had changed. These images further symbolize the way society had altered as these men represent those changes. This color symbolism ties each of these aspects of the story together in a united theme. The symbolism used in this story instills in the reader a deeper sense of appreciation as well as a desire to look into themselves in order to discover their own truth. The united themes and symbolism tie the story together and without them, the depiction created would be hollow, without a soul or any real meaning. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor centers her stories around the concrete world; yet, it is the depth she weaves into her fiction that makes it so valuable. The Christian faith is clearly her resounding symbol in this story, yet other aspects of it stand forth as well. The grandmother and the Misfit are not people; they are representations of the flaws and frailties in all human beings, the ones that define man as a sinner and make mankind run from itself. By penning these startling tributes to self-discovery and truth, OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor is able to grasp the very real and necessary desire for society to examine itself neutrally rather than with rose-colored glasses. Bandy, Stephen. Ã¢â¬Å"`One of My Babies: The misfit and the grandmother. Ã¢â¬ Studies in Short Fiction; Winter96, Vol. 33 Issue 1. 107-118. Bonney, William. Ã¢â¬Å"The Moral Structure of Flannery OConnors A Good Man is Hard to Find. Ã¢â¬ Studies in Short Fiction; Summer 90, Vol. 27 Issue 3, 347-356. Irving, Malin. Ã¢â¬Å"Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and the Grotesque. Ã¢â¬ In the Added Dimension: The Art and Mind of Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor. Melvin Friedman and Lewis A. Lawson, eds. New York: Fordham University Press, 1966. 113-114. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Flannery. Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man Is Hard to Find. Ã¢â¬ The Complete Stories. New York: Ferrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971. 117-133. Olson, Steven. Ã¢â¬Å"TarwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s Hats. Ã¢â¬ Studies in the Literary Imagination; Fall 1987, Vol. 20, Issue 2, 37-49.
Posted by Unknown at 2:33 PM
Monday, November 4, 2019
Techniques for roadway tunnelling - Research Paper Example The tunneling process usually starts with the excavation of the area in which the tunnel is to be created. After the determination of the main functional requirements, tunnel designs are usually drawn based on the various factors identified. The tunneling technique and approach to be used in a project must always be selected in the initial stages of the planning phase so that the team is able to understand the procedures involved and the possible risk factors that it will have to deal with so as to achieve the intended objectives. Several techniques have been used in roadway tunneling. According to BartÃ ¡k, Hrdina, & Romancov (Ã¢â¬Å½2007) the technique used in the construction of a tunnel is normally determined by several factors. They include the shape of the tunnel, tunnel length, available resources and technology, environmental constraints and the geographical features in the area where the tunnel is to be constructed. The main concept in majority of the roadway tunneling techniques involves the sequential or full length excavation of a road segment followed by subsequent construction of the passage. In most instances, drainage, ventilation and support will be required in the tunnel. The final stage of the process entails considering environmental issues such as the planting of tree and the reconstruction of secondary roads upslope. Conventional roadway tunneling is the construction of underground pass ways and openings of any shape through the use of cyclic construction processes (BartÃ ¡k, Hrdina, & Romancov, 2007). Hashemi (2013) states that conventional roadway tunneling is normally done by carrying out cyclic process in different stages. The process can however be grouped into three main steps. The first stage is the excavation of the soil and rocks using different methods like mechanical excavation, drilling and blasting. This is then followed by mucking. The
Posted by Unknown at 7:32 AM
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Project - Research Paper Example This psychological and emotional distance between the young and elderly population has created many problems on personal and social level, which can threaten the psychological, emotional and the physical health of the family structure and the society as a whole. Introduction Old age is a graceful phase of life as it makes people free from most of their responsibilities in life, and gives them a feeling of fulfillment, contentment and freedom. It also provides them with leisure, and opportunity to undertake those things that they were not able to do in their youth due to professional and personal responsibilities. However, instead of enjoying their old age in leisure and relaxation, elderly people are being indirectly forced to feel that they have made a mistake by becoming Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢. The reason behind elderly people feeling Ã¢â¬ËunwantedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËworthlessÃ¢â¬â¢ is the prejudice and the discrimination with which they are being treated in the society. Sadly, it is the Western society where elderly people experience major problems. In the United States, the negative attitude and misconception about the old age has resulted in elderly people experiencing disadvantage in their personal and social life (Macioni, 2009, p.396). ... o understand that the negative treatment of elderly people is not only destroying the life of elderly people on individual level, but is also destroying the health of the society as a whole (Andersen & Taylor, 2008, p. 363). Society cannot afford its elderly population to be depressed and psychologically weak as the sociology of age reveals that age composition is essential for a healthy society as the solution of social problems depends on Ã¢â¬Å"how well social institutions serve different generations of peopleÃ¢â¬ (Andersen & Taylor, 2008, p. 363). Moreover, due to their experience and wisdom gained from life, elderly people have lot to contribute to the society. Hence, it is high time for people to understand that for the formation of a healthy society, it is important to give respect and positive treatment to the elderly people, as they not only comprise the largest age group of the society, but also deserve it for successfully fulfilling the responsibilities and facing the c hallenges of life. Ageism Ageism is a term used by sociologists to define the prejudice and discrimination practiced against elderly people due to their age (Andersen & Taylor, 2011, p. 93). Ageism has seeped in every aspect of the society and is not limited to a single attitude or belief towards the elderly people (Andersen & Taylor, 2011, p. 93). Elderly people are not able to take advantage of different sources and opportunities in social and professional life as they experience discrimination and prejudice in different areas of life (Andersen & Taylor, 2011, p. 93). People think that with growing age, the abilities of person are reduced. It is wrongly believed that elderly people are not capable of handling the responsibilities of adults as they are childlike and forgetful in nature (Andersen &
Posted by Unknown at 1:08 AM