Monday, November 4, 2019

Techniques for roadway tunnelling Research Paper

Techniques for roadway tunnelling - Research Paper Example The tunneling process usually starts with the excavation of the area in which the tunnel is to be created. After the determination of the main functional requirements, tunnel designs are usually drawn based on the various factors identified. The tunneling technique and approach to be used in a project must always be selected in the initial stages of the planning phase so that the team is able to understand the procedures involved and the possible risk factors that it will have to deal with so as to achieve the intended objectives. Several techniques have been used in roadway tunneling. According to Bartà ¡k, Hrdina, & Romancov (‎2007) the technique used in the construction of a tunnel is normally determined by several factors. They include the shape of the tunnel, tunnel length, available resources and technology, environmental constraints and the geographical features in the area where the tunnel is to be constructed. The main concept in majority of the roadway tunneling techniques involves the sequential or full length excavation of a road segment followed by subsequent construction of the passage. In most instances, drainage, ventilation and support will be required in the tunnel. The final stage of the process entails considering environmental issues such as the planting of tree and the reconstruction of secondary roads upslope. Conventional roadway tunneling is the construction of underground pass ways and openings of any shape through the use of cyclic construction processes (Bartà ¡k, Hrdina, & Romancov, 2007). Hashemi (2013) states that conventional roadway tunneling is normally done by carrying out cyclic process in different stages. The process can however be grouped into three main steps. The first stage is the excavation of the soil and rocks using different methods like mechanical excavation, drilling and blasting. This is then followed by mucking. The

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